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The inadvertent estrogenicity of certain synthetic chemicals, and their subsequent effects on the endocrine system of humans and wildlife, is of concern. In this paper we report findings from in vitro and in vivo (uterotrophic) studies which confirm that a range of alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are weakly estrogenic. In a receptor-binding(More)
An analysis is presented in which are evaluated correlations among chemical structure, mutagenicity to Salmonella, and carcinogenicity to rats and mice among 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP. Overall, there was a high correlation between structural alerts to DNA reactivity and mutagenicity, but the correlation of either property with carcinogenicity was(More)
vom Saal et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 2056-2061, 1997) have reported that low dose exposure (0.02-2 microg/kg/day) of CF1 mice to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero led to increases in the prostate gland weight when the pups reached 8 months of age. Nagel et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 105, 70-76, 1997) reported similar effects in CF1 mice at 6(More)
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Alderley Park (Wistar derived) rats were exposed by gavage during gestation days 6-21 to 20 microg/kg, 100 microg/kg, or 50 mg/kg body weight of BPA with ethinylestradiol (EE; 200 microg/kg) acting as a positive control agent. The sexual development of the derived pups was monitored until termination at postnatal day 90-98.(More)
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in(More)
The present studies report the effects on neonatal rats of oral exposure to genistein during the period from birth to postnatal day (PND) 21 to generate data for use in assessing human risk following oral ingestion of genistein. Failure to demonstrate significant exposure of the newborn pups via the mothers milk led us to subcutaneously inject genistein(More)
The major protocol features of the immature rat uterotrophic assay have been evaluated using a range of reference chemicals. The protocol variables considered include the selection of the test species and route of chemical administration, the age of the test animals, the maintenance diet used, and the specificity of the assay for estrogens. It is concluded(More)
A survey has been conducted of 222 chemicals evaluated for carcinogenicity in mice and rats by the United States NCI/NTP. The structure of each chemical has been assessed for potential electrophilic (DNA-reactive) sites, its mutagenicity to Salmonella recorded, and the level of its carcinogenicity to rodents tabulated. Correlations among these 3 parameters(More)
In this review we have evaluated the relationship between peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. To do so, we identified all chemicals known to produce peroxisome proliferation and selected those for which there are data (on peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis) which meet certain criteria chosen to facilitate comparison of these(More)