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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has completed the first phase of an international validation program for the rodent uterotrophic bioassay. This uterotrophic bioassay is intended to identify the in vivo activity of compounds that are suspected agonists or antagonists of estrogen. This information could, for example, be used to help(More)
vom Saal et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 2056-2061, 1997) have reported that low dose exposure (0.02-2 microg/kg/day) of CF1 mice to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero led to increases in the prostate gland weight when the pups reached 8 months of age. Nagel et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 105, 70-76, 1997) reported similar effects in CF1 mice at 6(More)
Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Alderley Park (Wistar derived) rats were exposed by gavage during gestation days 6-21 to 20 microg/kg, 100 microg/kg, or 50 mg/kg body weight of BPA with ethinylestradiol (EE; 200 microg/kg) acting as a positive control agent. The sexual development of the derived pups was monitored until termination at postnatal day 90-98.(More)
The major protocol features of the immature rat uterotrophic assay have been evaluated using a range of reference chemicals. The protocol variables considered include the selection of the test species and route of chemical administration, the age of the test animals, the maintenance diet used, and the specificity of the assay for estrogens. It is concluded(More)
The inadvertent estrogenicity of certain synthetic chemicals, and their subsequent effects on the endocrine system of humans and wildlife, is of concern. In this paper we report findings from in vitro and in vivo (uterotrophic) studies which confirm that a range of alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are weakly estrogenic. In a receptor-binding(More)
M. Sakaue et al. (2001,J. Occup. Health vol. 43, pp. 185-190) have described how oral exposure of sexually mature male rats to bisphenol A (BPA) between postnatal days (PND) 91-97 led to a reduction in daily sperm production (DSP) 5 weeks later (18 weeks of age). Activity was observed over the dose range 20 microgram/kg-200 mg/kg BPA, with an absence of(More)
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) has been administered in drinking water (1000 micrograms/liter) to pregnant AP rats during gestation and lactation. The sexual development of the pups was then monitored until their termination at postnatal day 90 (pnd 90). Pups derived from animals exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in drinking water (50 micrograms/liter)(More)
An analysis is presented in which are evaluated correlations among chemical structure, mutagenicity to Salmonella, and carcinogenicity to rats and mice among 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP. Overall, there was a high correlation between structural alerts to DNA reactivity and mutagenicity, but the correlation of either property with carcinogenicity was(More)
Raloxifene is generally regarded as a tissue-selective estrogen agonist, being capable of selectively counter-acting both the loss of bone density and the increase in serum cholesterol that occur in rats following ovariectomy, without the induction of a trophic effect on the rat uterus. An implication of this activity profile is that reliance cannot be(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is active in immature AP rat uterotrophic assays when evaluated using either the oral or the subcutaneous (sc) injection routes of exposure (three daily administrations of 400-800 mg/kg BPA). Premature vaginal opening was seen for 8 of 14 animals exposed to 600 and 800 mg/kg BPA by sc injection. Vaginal opening was not produced by BPA in(More)