Learn More
Studies with nicotine chewing gum and nicotine skin patches indicate that nicotine replacement can help people to give up smoking. The rapidity with which nicotine is absorbed when given as a nasal spray suggests that it might be effective for those for whom the other means of replacement are too slow. The efficacy and safety of a nasal nicotine spray as an(More)
Smoking cessation treatment is now integrated into many health-care systems and a major research effort is under way to improve current success rates. Until now results from randomized clinical trials have been reported in many different ways, leading to problems of interpretation. We propose six standard criteria comprising the 'Russell Standard' (RS).(More)
In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study the effects of two doses of subcutaneous nicotine and saline were compared on a range of performance measures in 18 abstaining smokers and 18 never-smokers. Each subject received two injections (40 min apart) of saline, 0.3 mg nicotine, or 0.6 mg nicotine in a balanced order over three sessions.(More)
Plasma nicotine concentrations following administration by two types of nasal nicotine spray were compared in ten subjects. Absorption was particularly rapid during the first 2.5 min, the average rise in blood nicotine concentrations during this time being 8.6 ng/ml for the two products, followed by a small further rise to an average peak increase of 10.5(More)
BACKGROUND Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. METHODS The STS(More)
The transdermal nicotine patch has proved an effective aid to smoking cessation. The ease of securing good compliance gives it a potential advantage over nicotine gum as an adjunct to brief advice and support in primary care settings where the major public health impact is obtained. In a preliminary report of half the sample of a randomized placebo(More)
BACKGROUND Cytisine, a partial agonist that binds with high affinity to the α(4)β(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, is a low-cost treatment that may be effective in aiding smoking cessation. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of cytisine as compared with placebo. METHODS We conducted a single-center, randomized, double-blind,(More)
Reviews of internet-based behaviour-change interventions have shown that they can be effective but there is considerable heterogeneity and effect sizes are generally small. In order to advance science and technology in this area, it is essential to be able to build on principles and evidence of behaviour change in an incremental manner. We report the(More)
Risk factors for the uptake of cigarette smoking were examined prospectively in 2159 non-smoking secondary schoolchildren aged 11-13 who participated in a survey in 1983 and were followed up 30 months later, by which time 35 per cent had taken up smoking. In a multivariate logistic model, the strongest predictors to emerge were prior experimentation with(More)
BACKGROUND Soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1; sCD54), sCD44v5 and sCD44v6 are circulating adhesion molecules, with immunomodulatory potential, that have been frequently attributed diagnostic, prognostic and aetiological significance in a number of inflammatory and malignant diseases. We have previously shown that systemic concentrations of these molecules are(More)