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Cyclic AMP is an intracellular mediator ('second messenger') in the nervous and endocrine control of cellular function, regulating different processes in different cell types. Although evidence is incomplete, it seems that cyclic AMP enhances the calcium-mediated release of neurotransmitter in some neurones. A simple form of memory in the mollusc Aplysia is(More)
The cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase activities present in flies of six mutant strains of the dunce gene and in the parent wild-type strains are characterized. All of the mutants exhibit aberrant cyclic AMP metabolism. The mutant strains dunceM14, dunceM11, and dunceML appear to be amorphic, because they completely lack the cAMP-specific(More)
Ethanol has complex but similar effects on behavior in mammals and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, genetic and pharmacological approaches have implicated the cAMP pathway in the regulation of ethanol-induced behaviors in both flies and rodents. Here we examine the neuroanatomical loci that modulate ethanol sensitivity in Drosophila by(More)
The dunce gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (form II). Mutant dunce flies have elevated levels of cAMP and exhibit a number of defects including learning deficiencies and female sterility. Two partial suppressors of the female sterility phenotype have been selected in an X chromosome containing a dunce null mutation.(More)
The dunce gene of Drosophila melanogaster codes for a cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase. Mutations of dunce alter or abolish the activity of this enzyme, produce elevated cAMP levels, cause recessive female sterility, and produce learning deficiencies in both sexes. Aberrant male sexual behavior has also been associated with(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) activates a signal transduction pathway regulating Cubitus interruptus (Ci). In the absence of Hh, full-length Ci (Ci-155) is bound in a complex that includes Costal2 (Cos2) and Fused (Fu). Ci-155 is phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), inducing proteolysis to Ci-75, a transcriptional repressor. Hh signaling blocks proteolysis and(More)
Two genetically distinct forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases are present in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Form II, which specifically hydrolyzes adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), is controlled by the dunce+ gene. Mutants of this gene either eliminate this enzyme form entirely or alter its kinetic and thermal properties, suggesting that(More)
Measurements of cAMP in early embryos of Drosophila melanogaster demonstrate that the dunce gene plays a major role, and the rutabaga gene a secondary role, in maternal regulation of embryonic cAMP content. Studying the double mutant combination, we find that variability in elevated cAMP content between individual embryos is associated with a wide(More)
Both male and female Drosophila that are homozygous deficient for chromomere 3D4 are viable but sterile and lack detectable cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Two genes have been localized to this region: spermamotile (sam) and dunce (dnc). The sperm-amotile gene is required for male fertility, and the dunce gene is required for normal learning,(More)
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