John Allister Vale

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EPIDEMIOLOGY Almost all cases of acute methanol toxicity result from ingestion, though rarely cases of poisoning have followed inhalation or dermal absorption. The absorption of methanol following oral administration is rapid and peak methanol concentrations occur within 30-60minutes. MECHANISMS OF TOXICITY Methanol has a relatively low toxicity and(More)
The first pyrethroid pesticide, allethrin, was identified in 1949. Allethrin and other pyrethroids with a basic cyclopropane carboxylic ester structure are type I pyrethroids. The insecticidal activity of these synthetic pyrethroids was enhanced further by the addition of a cyano group to give alpha-cyano (type II) pyrethroids, such as cypermethrin. The(More)
Single-dose activated charcoal therapy involves the oral administration or instillation by nasogastric tube of an aqueous preparation of activated charcoal after the ingestion of a poison. Volunteer studies demonstrate that the effectiveness of activated charcoal decreases with time. Data using at least 50 g of activated charcoal, showed a mean reduction in(More)
This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental(More)
INTRODUCTION Chlorophenoxy herbicides are used widely for the control of broad-leaved weeds. They exhibit a variety of mechanisms of toxicity including dose-dependent cell membrane damage, uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and disruption of acetylcoenzyme A metabolism. Between January 1962 and January 1999, 66 cases of chlorophenoxy herbicide(More)
INTRODUCTION Benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) are synthetic phenylpiperazine analogues. BZP was investigated as a potential antidepressant in the early 1970s but was found unsuitable for this purpose. More recently, BZP and TFMPP have been used as substitutes for amfetamine-derived designer drugs. They were legally(More)
Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidising agent that is used in a number of household products, including general-purpose disinfectants, chlorine-free bleaches, fabric stain removers, contact lens disinfectants and hair dyes, and it is a component of some tooth whitening products. In industry, the principal use of hydrogen peroxide is as a bleaching agent in the(More)
Unless renal function is impaired or rhabdomyolysis is severe, hyperkalemia is a relatively uncommon metabolic complication of poisoning. In contrast, marked hypokalemia is a more common problem and may have serious sequelae. Most potassium disturbances in acute poisoning are due to disruption of extra-renal control mechanisms, notably the activity of(More)
INTRODUCTION Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD), are drugs of abuse which act primarily as central nervous system (CNS) depressants. In recent years, the rising recreational use of these drugs has led to an increasing burden upon health care providers. Understanding their toxicity is(More)