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While there is a developing understanding of the influence of sleep on cardiovascular autonomic activity in humans, there remain unresolved issues. In particular, the effect of time within the sleep period, independent of sleep stage, has not been investigated. Further, the influence of sleep on central sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is uncertain(More)
Using airborne laser scanner data, buildings can be detected automatically, and their roof shapes can be reconstructed. The success rate of building detection and the level of detail of the resulting building models depend on the resolution of the laser scanner data, which is still lower than the resolution of aerial imagery. Building extraction from aerial(More)
One postulated mechanism for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is insufficient drive to the upper-airway musculature during sleep, with increased (compensatory) drive during wakefulness. This generates more electromyographic activity in upper airway muscles including genioglossus. To understand drives to upper airway muscles, we recorded single motor unit(More)
The sensitivity and specificity of four self-report measures of disordered sleep - the Sleep Impairment Index (SII), the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ), the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (DBAS) and the Sleep-Wake Activity Inventory (SWAI) - were compared in subjects with insomnia and normal sleep. Nineteen young adult subjects(More)
Recent evidence suggests that body temperature at sleep onset affects the subsequent level of slow wave sleep. According to one hypothesis, the actual temperature is the critical factor determining the relationship. An alternative proposal is that it is the rate of fall of body temperature following sleep onset. These hypotheses were tested by measuring(More)
Existing literature on reward motivation pays scant attention to the fact that reward potential of the environment varies dramatically with the light/dark cycle. Evolution, by contrast, treats this fact very seriously: In all species, the circadian system is adapted to optimize the daily rhythm of environmental engagement. We used 3 standard protocols to(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES To determine whether K-complex production is better interpreted as being an arousal response or reflective of a sleep protective micro-state. DESIGN A 3-night study--night 1 as a baseline night, night 2 as a sleep fragmentation night, followed immediately by night 3 as a recovery night. On nights 1 and 3, approximately 400 auditory(More)
Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) are influenced by the sleep-wake cycle, with relatively abrupt falls occurring in association with sleep onset (SO). However, the pattern and rate of fall in BP and HR during SO and the processes that contribute to the fall in these variables have not been fully identified. Continuous BP and HR recordings were(More)
Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity vary diurnally, with a reduction in HR and BP, and a shift to vagal dominance during the dark phase. However, the cause of these changes, particularly the relative influence of sleep and circadian mechanisms, remains uncertain. The present study assessed the effect of sleep(More)