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In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study the effects of two doses of subcutaneous nicotine and saline were compared on a range of performance measures in 18 abstaining smokers and 18 never-smokers. Each subject received two injections (40 min apart) of saline, 0.3 mg nicotine, or 0.6 mg nicotine in a balanced order over three sessions.(More)
Plasma nicotine concentrations following administration by two types of nasal nicotine spray were compared in ten subjects. Absorption was particularly rapid during the first 2.5 min, the average rise in blood nicotine concentrations during this time being 8.6 ng/ml for the two products, followed by a small further rise to an average peak increase of 10.5(More)
Studies with nicotine chewing gum and nicotine skin patches indicate that nicotine replacement can help people to give up smoking. The rapidity with which nicotine is absorbed when given as a nasal spray suggests that it might be effective for those for whom the other means of replacement are too slow. The efficacy and safety of a nasal nicotine spray as an(More)
In order to examine the role of endogenous opioids in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to study the effects of the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, on smoking behaviour and cigarette withdrawal in 12 heavy smokers. Although naltrexone (50 mg) appeared to reduce the perceived difficulty of(More)
BACKGROUND Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. METHODS The STS(More)
BACKGROUND The 1998 UK government White Paper Smoking Kills emphasises that normal practice should be for general practitioners (GPs), practice nurses, and others to offer advice and support to smokers in their efforts to stop. However, GPs are not allowed to write NHS prescriptions for nicotine-replacement therapy, even though this is the only effective(More)
BACKGROUND A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 ('Stoptober'). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers(More)
RATIONALE Cotinine is an accurate objective marker of nicotine intake. There is very little information on its stability over time or as a function of self-reported attempts at smoking reduction. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to assess the stability of saliva cotinine concentrations over a 3-month period, as a function of self-reported attempts to reduce(More)
AIMS This paper provides a concise review of the efficacy, effectiveness and affordability of health-care interventions to promote and assist tobacco cessation, in order to inform national guideline development and assist countries in planning their provision of tobacco cessation support. METHODS Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of(More)
The effect of transdermal nicotine patches on ad libitum cigarette smoking was examined in 30 subjects by measuring behavioural, biochemical and subjective aspects of smoking during a week of smoking without patches, and then a week each of nicotine and placebo patches in a randomised double blind crossover design. While wearing nicotine patches the(More)