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OBJECTIVE To assess if the effect of a single treatment episode with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhances smoking cessation over many years. DATA SOURCES Meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials of NRT with final follow-up more than one year after the start of treatment. Twelve eligible trials were identified, all placebo-controlled,(More)
In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study the effects of two doses of subcutaneous nicotine and saline were compared on a range of performance measures in 18 abstaining smokers and 18 never-smokers. Each subject received two injections (40 min apart) of saline, 0.3 mg nicotine, or 0.6 mg nicotine in a balanced order over three sessions.(More)
Plasma nicotine concentrations following administration by two types of nasal nicotine spray were compared in ten subjects. Absorption was particularly rapid during the first 2.5 min, the average rise in blood nicotine concentrations during this time being 8.6 ng/ml for the two products, followed by a small further rise to an average peak increase of 10.5(More)
Studies with nicotine chewing gum and nicotine skin patches indicate that nicotine replacement can help people to give up smoking. The rapidity with which nicotine is absorbed when given as a nasal spray suggests that it might be effective for those for whom the other means of replacement are too slow. The efficacy and safety of a nasal nicotine spray as an(More)
In order to examine the role of endogenous opioids in the reinforcing effects of nicotine, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was used to study the effects of the opiate antagonist, naltrexone, on smoking behaviour and cigarette withdrawal in 12 heavy smokers. Although naltrexone (50 mg) appeared to reduce the perceived difficulty of(More)
AIMS To identify the predictors of attempts to stop smoking and the predictors of quit attempt success in adult general population samples. METHODS We performed an electronic search of EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group specialized register for articles that examined, in prospective adult general population(More)
BACKGROUND Up-to-date data tracking of national smoking patterns and cessation-related behaviour is required to evaluate and inform tobacco control strategies. The Smoking Toolkit Study (STS) was designed for this role. This paper describes the methodology of the STS and examines as far as possible the representativeness of the samples. METHODS The STS(More)
OBJECTIVES (a) To evaluate the efficacy of transdermal nicotine patches as an aid to stopping smoking when used as an adjunct to brief advice and support in a general practice setting; (b) to see whether an increase in nicotine patch dosage enhances the rate of initial cessation. DESIGN Randomised double blind placebo controlled parallel group study with(More)
BACKGROUND A national smoking cessation campaign based on behaviour change theory and operating through both traditional and new media was launched across England during late 2012 ('Stoptober'). In addition to attempting to start a movement in which smokers would quit at the same time in response to a positive mass quitting trigger, the campaign set smokers(More)
BACKGROUND The 1998 UK government White Paper Smoking Kills emphasises that normal practice should be for general practitioners (GPs), practice nurses, and others to offer advice and support to smokers in their efforts to stop. However, GPs are not allowed to write NHS prescriptions for nicotine-replacement therapy, even though this is the only effective(More)