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This is the eighth in a series of papers dealing with the role of vision in reading. In previous papers, we have evaluated the effects of stimulus and subject variables on reading rate using a drifting-text procedure. In this paper, we describe a new test of reading rate that uses static text, called the Minnesota Low-Vision Reading Test (MNread). It is(More)
Transformational leadership researchers have given little attention to teacher expectations that mediate between goals and actions. The most important of these expectations, teacher efficacy, refers to teacher beliefs that they will be able to bring about student learning. This study examined the mediating effects of teacher efficacy by comparing two models(More)
Globally, the number of maternal deaths remains large, and the risk per birth is high in the developing world. Deaths declined between 1990 and 2008, despite the 42% increase in women. We decompose selected determinants to help explain the decline. Numbers of women, births, and fertility rates come from the UN; maternal mortality ratios are from the UN and(More)
Current views of the visual system assume that the primate brain analyses form and motion along largely independent pathways; they provide no insight into why form is sometimes interpreted as motion. In a series of psychophysical and electrophysiological experiments in humans and macaques, here we show that some form information is processed in the(More)
This study examined the influence of age-related changes in vision on reading performance. Maximum reading speed was measured in groups of young (n = 16, mean age 21.6 years) and old (n = 14, mean age 68.3 years) subjects, all with acuities of 20/32 or better. A psychophysical procedure was used for measuring reading speed that has proven reliable and(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies describe significant rates of misdiagnosis of stroke, seizure and other neurological problems, but there are few studies examining diagnostic accuracy of all emergency referrals to a neurology service. This information could be useful in focusing the neurological education of physicians who assess and refer patients with(More)
BACKGROUND With recent results showing a global decline in overall maternal mortality during the last two decades and with the target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals only four years away, the question of how to continue or even accelerate the decline has become more pressing. By knowing where the risk is highest as well as where the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine how much contraceptive use increases as additional methods are made available to populations. METHODS We used data estimating contraceptive use from representative national surveys and data estimating method availability from special surveys to make comparisons for 6 modern contraceptive methods, in each of 6 years: 1982, 1989, 1994,(More)
BACKGROUND Several birth characteristics are associated with high mortality risk: very young or old mothers, short birth intervals and high birth order. One justification for family planning programs is the health benefits associated with better spacing and timing of births. This study examines the extent to which the prevalence of these risk factors(More)