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Rapid modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has long been a hot topic, but analysis of molecular mechanisms via synaptic estrogen receptors has been seriously difficult. Here, two types of independent synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) and spinogenesis, were investigated, in response to 17beta-estradiol and agonists of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous neuromessenger. Although increasing evidence reveals significant physiological effects of NO in the hippocampal synaptic plasticity, the spatial distribution of NO production has remained largely uncharacterized due to the poor development of techniques for real-time NO imaging. In this work, using a NO-reactive fluorescent(More)
The current quantitative study demonstrates that the recruitment of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) beneath N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, via postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) proteins significantly enhances nitric oxide (NO) production. Real-time single-cell fluorescence imaging was applied to measure both NO production and Ca(2+) influx in(More)
The relaxation of an ensemble of ss-DNA oligonucleotides to an equilibrium of annealed, or hybridized, double-stranded molecules has been harnessed for massively parallel computation. The annealing reactions , however, have the potential to produce error. Various heuristic methods for generating sets of single-stranded DNA (encodings) with minimal potential(More)
In the whiplash polymerase chain reaction (WPCR), autonomous molecular computation is implemented in vitro by the recursive, self-directed polymerase extension of a mixture of DNA hairpins. Although computational efficiency is known to be reduced by a tendency for DNAs to self-inhibit by backhybridization, both the magnitude of this effect and its(More)
We explore the information processing capabilities and ef-ciency of DNA computations by giving two diierent types of implementations of nite-state machines. A ligation-based approach allows input of arbitrary length and can be readily implemented with current biotechnology, but requires sequential input feed and diierent molecules for diierent machines. In(More)