John A. Polagruto

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Endothelial dysfunction characterizes many disease states including subclinical atherosclerosis. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and cocoa-based products has been shown to improve endothelial function in both compromised and otherwise normal, healthy individuals when administered either acutely or over a period of several days, or weeks. Women(More)
BACKGROUND Dietary intervention studies incorporating phytosterol-enriched margarine spreads have reported significant decreases in total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in populations with both normal lipid levels and those with hypercholesterolemia. There is emerging support for more diverse and lower-fat phytosterol-enriched matrixes.(More)
Macronutrients in food and gastric acid are known to have a pronounced effect on the metabolism of many xenobiotics, an effect that impacts their efficacy as bioactive agents. In this investigation we assessed the impact of select food treatments and the histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist Famotidine (Pepcid-AC) on flavanol absorption and metabolism. Four(More)
Flavanols, or flavan-3-ols, are a family of bioactive compounds present in cocoa, red wine, green tea, red grapes, berries and apples. With a basic monomer unit of (−)-epicatechin or (+)-catechin, flavanols can be present in foods and beverages as monomers or oligomers (procyanidins). Most, but not all, procyanidins are degraded into monomer or dimer units(More)
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes and coronary heart disease. Postprandial lipemia is a prominent feature of dyslipidemia in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and MetS and is also associated with coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pivotal in all stages of atherosclerosis; however,(More)
The mechanisms by which foods, such as fruit, are able to reduce the risk of chronic disease are still unclear. Several fruit products, including apples and apple juice, that are flavonoid-rich are reported to increase antioxidant levels in human subjects. This is supported by the finding from our previous studies that the chronic consumption of apple juice(More)
Diets rich in flavonoids have been associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. This may be due, in part, to flavonoid-induced alterations in eicosanoid synthesis. Our objective was to identify plant-derived beverages that alter synthesis of prostacyclin in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC), and to determine if these beverages could(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest that a high dietary intake of flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids, is associated with reduced risk of vascular disease. Clinical studies have also shown that the consumption of certain flavanol-rich foods (e.g., cocoa, tea, red wine), as well as intake of the individual flavanol (-)-epicatechin, can result in improvement in a(More)
Fruits and vegetables have historically been considered rich sources of essential dietary micronutrients, soluble fiber, and antioxidants. More recently they are have been recognized as important sources for a wide array of phytochemicals that individually, or in combination, may benefit vascular health. Flavonoids are the largest, and most widely(More)
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