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A carbon-rich black layer, dating to approximately 12.9 ka, has been previously identified at approximately 50 Clovis-age sites across North America and appears contemporaneous with the abrupt onset of Younger Dryas (YD) cooling. The in situ bones of extinct Pleistocene megafauna, along with Clovis tool assemblages, occur below this black layer but not(More)
The purpose of this paper is 2-fold. First, we present several extensions to the ONIOM(QM:MM) scheme. In its original formulation, the electrostatic interaction between the regions is included at the classical level. Here we present the extension to electronic embedding. We show how the behavior of ONIOM with electronic embedding can be more stable than(More)
Competitive inhibitors of the salvage pathway enzyme purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) have been designed by using the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme as determined by x-ray crystallography. The process was an iterative one that utilized interactive computer graphics, Monte(More)
We have recently reported an influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor, RWJ-270201 (BCX-1812), a novel cyclopentane derivative discovered through structure-based drug design. In this paper, we compare the potency of three compounds, RWJ-270201, oseltamivir, and zanamivir, against neuraminidase enzymes from various subtypes of influenza. RWJ-270201 effectively(More)
Liposomes conjugated with anti-H2Kk antibody associate with L929 murine fibroblasts in 6- to 20-fold greater amount than do nonspecific liposomes. The ability of methotrexate-gamma-aspartate to inhibit L929 growth is increased 10-fold when encapsulated in targeted liposomes but is decreased to 50% when encapsulated in liposomes with no specificity for the(More)