John A Melick

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During programmed cell death, activation of caspase-3 leads to proteolysis of DNA repair proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and the inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease, culminating in morphologic changes and DNA damage defining apoptosis. The participation of caspase-3 activation in the evolution of neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in(More)
Quality of recovery after anaesthesia is an important measure of the early postoperative health status of patients. We attempted to develop a valid, reliable and responsive measure of quality of recovery after anaesthesia and surgery. We studied 160 patients and asked them to rate postoperative recovery using three methods: a 100-mm visual analogue scale(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a homeostatic enzyme that paradoxically contributes to disturbances in spatial memory acquisition after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in transgenic mice, thought to be related to depletion of its substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). In this study, systemic administration of the PARP-1 inhibitor(More)
Increases in brain interstitial excitatory amino acid (EAA(I)) concentrations after ischemia are ameliorated by use-dependent Na+ channel antagonists and by supplementing interstitial glucose, but the regulation of EAA(I) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. We studied the regulation of EAA(I) after TBI using the controlled cortical impact model(More)
OBJECTIVES Therapeutic hypothermia is widely employed for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest. However, concern regarding elevated drug concentrations during hypothermia and increased adverse drug reaction risk complicates concurrent pharmacotherapy. Many commonly used medications in critically ill patients rely on the cytochrome P450 3A isoform for their(More)
The influence of anesthetic agents on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in normal rats. CBF is quantified with arterial spin-labeled MRI in rats anesthetized with either an opiate (fentanyl), a potent inhalation anesthetic agent (isoflurane), or a barbiturate (pentobarbital) using doses commonly employed in experimental paradigms. CBF values were found(More)
In a rat model of complete global brain ischemia (neck tourniquet) lasting either 3 min or 20 min, we monitored global CBF (sagittal sinus H2 clearance) and CMRO2 for 6 h to test the hypothesis that delayed postischemic hyperemia and uncoupling of CBF and CMRO2 occur depending on the severity of the insult. Early postischemic hyperemia occurred in both the(More)
Adenosine analogs such as 2-chloroadenosine are potent cerebrovasodilators. Spin-labeled MRI was used to investigate the spatial distribution, dose-response, and timing of the effect of 2-chloroadenosine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) after intraparenchymal injection into rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10) were injected with 2-chloroadenosine at doses of(More)
UNLABELLED Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation (EPR) represents a novel approach to treat exsanguination cardiac arrest (CA) victims, using an aortic flush to induce hypothermia during circulatory arrest, followed by delayed resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The status of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity after prolonged(More)
If the efficacy of hypothermia and barbiturates in ameliorating ischemic brain injury lies in reducing the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), the greater efficacy of mild hypothermia (34 degrees C) compared with barbiturates is inconsistent with the 15-20% reduction of CMRO2 caused by mild hypothermia compared with 50% caused by barbiturates. This(More)