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During programmed cell death, activation of caspase-3 leads to proteolysis of DNA repair proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and the inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease, culminating in morphologic changes and DNA damage defining apoptosis. The participation of caspase-3 activation in the evolution of neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in(More)
The influence of anesthetic agents on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was tested in normal rats. CBF is quantified with arterial spin-labeled MRI in rats anesthetized with either an opiate (fentanyl), a potent inhalation anesthetic agent (isoflurane), or a barbiturate (pentobarbital) using doses commonly employed in experimental paradigms. CBF values were found(More)
Adenosine analogs such as 2-chloroadenosine are potent cerebrovasodilators. Spin-labeled MRI was used to investigate the spatial distribution, dose-response, and timing of the effect of 2-chloroadenosine on cerebral blood flow (CBF) after intraparenchymal injection into rat brain. Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 10) were injected with 2-chloroadenosine at doses of(More)
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a homeostatic enzyme that paradoxically contributes to disturbances in spatial memory acquisition after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in transgenic mice, thought to be related to depletion of its substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). In this study, systemic administration of the PARP-1 inhibitor(More)
Adenosine is an endogenous neuroprotectant via anti-excitotoxic effects at A(1) receptors, and blood flow promoting and anti-inflammatory effects at A(2a) receptors. Previous studies showed improved motor function after fluid percussion injury (FPI) in rats treated with the broad-spectrum adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA). We studied the(More)
Increases in brain interstitial excitatory amino acid (EAA(I)) concentrations after ischemia are ameliorated by use-dependent Na+ channel antagonists and by supplementing interstitial glucose, but the regulation of EAA(I) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. We studied the regulation of EAA(I) after TBI using the controlled cortical impact model(More)
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been suggested to play a complex role in the response to central nervous system insults such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cerebral ischemia. In the current study, we quantified maps of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) using an arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, at 24 and 72(More)
High-field MRI scanners are, in principle, well suited for mouse studies; however, many high-field magnets employ a vertical design that may influence the physiological state of the rodent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the orthostatic response of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mice during a prolonged MR experiment in the vertical position.(More)
Despite common use of narcotics in the clinical management of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), in experimental models rats treated with fentanyl have exhibited worse functional outcome and more CA1 hippocampal death than rats treated with standard isoflurane anesthesia. We hypothesized that greater post-traumatic excitotoxicity, reflected by cerebral(More)
Macrophages contribute to secondary damage and repair after central nervous system (CNS) injury. Micron-sized paramagnetic iron oxide (MPIO) particles can label macrophages in situ, facilitating three-dimensional (3D) mapping of macrophage accumulation following traumatic brain injury (TBI), via ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) and in vivo(More)