John A. Lewis

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OBJECTIVE To review inhalational exposures and respiratory disease risks in US military personnel deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan and to develop consensus recommendations for medical screening and diagnostic referral. METHODS A Working Group of physicians and exposure scientists from academia and from the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs was(More)
Heat illness is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening condition. Limited data are available to identify individuals with heat illness at greatest risk for organ damage. We recently described the transcriptomic and proteomic responses to heat injury and recovery in multiple organs in an in vivo model of conscious rats heated to a maximum core(More)
Toxic industrial chemicals induce liver injury, which is difficult to diagnose without invasive procedures. Identifying indicators of end organ injury can complement exposure-based assays and improve predictive power. A multiplexed approach was used to experimentally evaluate a panel of 67 genes predicted to be associated with the fibrosis pathology by(More)
Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To(More)
Respiratory symptoms are frequently reported in personnel deployed to the Middle East. This project characterized the respiratory toxicity of inhaled Iraqi sand (IS). Adult rats underwent a 6-wk inhalation to air or mainstream cigarette smoke (MSCS) (3 h/d, 5 d/wk) that included exposure to IS or crystalline silica (1 mg/m(3), 19 h/d, 7 d/wk) or air during(More)
The wide use of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides makes them an important public health concern. Persistent effects of exposure and the mechanism of neuronal degeneration are continuing issues in OP toxicology. To elucidate early steps in the mechanisms of OP toxicity, we studied alterations in global gene and protein expression in Caenorhabditis elegans(More)
The in vivo gene response associated with hyperthermia is poorly understood. Here, we perform a global, multiorgan characterization of the gene response to heat stress using an in vivo conscious rat model. We heated rats until implanted thermal probes indicated a maximal core temperature of 41.8°C (Tc,Max). We then compared transcriptomic profiles of liver,(More)
The undergraduate Computer Science program at Virginia Tech is the largest in the Commonwealth of<lb>Virginia, of which a key component is “CS 1044: Introduction to Programming”, and is typical of a first<lb>course in computer programming throughout the USA. While the student access to learning resources has<lb>improved considerably with the development of(More)
The principal toxicity of acute organophosphate (OP) pesticide poisoning is the disruption of neurotransmission through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, other mechanisms leading to persistent effects and neurodegeneration remain controversial and difficult to detect. Because Caenorhabditis elegans is relatively resistant to OP(More)
Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. Subchronic exposures to CPF that do not cause cholinergic crisis are associated with problems in cognitive function (i.e., learning and memory deficits), but the biological mechanism(s) underlying this association remain speculative. To identify(More)