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We have found that certain tetrasubstituted pyrazoles are high-affinity ligands for the estrogen receptor (ER) (Fink et al. Chem. Biol. 1999, 6, 205-219) and that one pyrazole is considerably more potent as an agonist on the ERalpha than on the ERbeta subtype (Sun et al. Endocrinology 1999, 140, 800-804). To investigate what substituent pattern provides(More)
Through an effort to develop novel ligands that have subtype selectivity for the estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), we have found that 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionitrile (DPN) acts as an agonist on both ER subtypes, but has a 70-fold higher relative binding affinity and 170-fold higher relative potency in transcription assays with(More)
Although much attention has been paid to the removal of hormones from sera and to the development of serum-free media for studies on hormone-responsive cells in culture, little consideration has been given to the possibility that the media components themselves may have hormonal activity. We have found that phenol red, which bears a structural resemblance(More)
Estrogens exert their regulatory transcriptional effects, which can be stimulatory or repressive, at diverse gene sites via two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Since these two ERs have different tissue distributions, ligands that have the capacity to selectively activate or inhibit these two ERs would be useful in elucidating the biology of these(More)
Estrogens elicit many biomedically important responses in different target tissues, and the respective roles of the two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta, in mediating these bioactivities is incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the activity of an ERalpha-selective agonist ligand, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT), in several rat animal(More)
Estrogens, acting through their nuclear receptors have a broad impact on target cells, eliciting a transcriptional response program that involves gene repression as well as gene stimulation. While much is known about the mechanisms by which the estrogen-occupied estrogen receptor (ER) stimulates gene expression, the molecular events that lead to gene(More)
To develop compounds that are antagonists on ER␣, but not ER␤, we have added basic side-chains typically found in non-steroidal antiestrogens to pyrazole compounds that bind with much higher affinity to ER␣ than to ER␤. In this way we have developed basic side-chain pyrazoles (BSC-pyrazoles) that are high affinity, potent, selective antagonists on ER␣.(More)
The relationship of the classical receptors and their transcriptional activity to nongenotropic effects of steroid hormones is unknown. We demonstrate herein a novel paradigm of sex steroid action on osteoblasts, osteocytes, embryonic fibroblasts, and HeLa cells involving activation of a Src/Shc/ERK signaling pathway and attenuating apoptosis. This action(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate whether positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analog [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the estrogen analog 16 alpha-[(18)F]fluoroestradiol-17 beta (FES), performed before and after treatment with tamoxifen, could be used to detect hormone-induced changes in tumor metabolism (metabolic(More)