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Bone is a complex highly structured mechanically active 3D tissue composed of cellular and matrix elements. The true biological environment of a bone cell is thus derived from a dynamic interaction between responsively active cells experiencing mechanical forces and a continuously changing 3D matrix architecture. To investigate this phenomenon in vitro,(More)
BACKGROUND Bone grafts are required to repair large bone defects after tumour resection or large trauma. The availability of patients' own bone tissue that can be used for these procedures is limited. Thus far bone tissue engineering has not lead to an implant which could be used as alternative in bone replacement surgery. This is mainly due to problems of(More)
This study instituted a unique approach to bone tissue engineering by combining effects of mechanical stimulation in the form of fluid shear stresses and the presence of bone-like extracellular matrix (ECM) on osteodifferentiation. Rat marrow stromal cells (MSCs) harvested from bone marrow were cultured on titanium (Ti) fiber mesh discs for 12 days in a(More)
145 Approximating dynamic global illumination in image space. T Ritschel, T Grosch, HP Seidel SI3D, 75­82 123 Cascaded light propagation volumes for real­time indirect illumination. A Kaplanyan, C Dachsbacher SI3D, 99­107 83 Efficient sparse voxel octrees. 52 Perceptually consistent example­based human motion retrieval. 51 Screen space fluid rendering with(More)
This study aimed to comparatively evaluate the in vitro effect of nanosized hydroxyapatite and collagen (nHA/COL) based composite hydrogels (with different ratios of nHA and COL) on the behavior of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from either adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) or bone marrow (BM-MSCs). We hypothesized that (i) nHA/COL composite(More)
A biomaterial scaffold is one of the key factors for successful tissue engineering. In recent years, an increasing tendency has been observed toward the combination of scaffolds and biomolecules, e.g. growth factors and therapeutic genes, to achieve bioactive scaffolds, which not only provide physical support but also express biological signals to modulate(More)
The inward rectifier current generated by Kir2.1 ion channel proteins is primarily responsible for the stable resting membrane potential in various excitable cell types, like neurons and myocytes. Tight regulation of Kir2.1 functioning prevents premature action potential formation and ensures optimal repolarization times. While Kir2.1 forward trafficking(More)
A biological pacemaker might be created by generation of a cellular construct consisting of cardiac cells that display spontaneous membrane depolarization, and that are electrotonically coupled to surrounding myocardial cells by means of gap junctions. Depending on the frequency of the spontaneously beating cells, frequency regulation might be required. We(More)
The field of tissue engineering is developing rapidly. Given its ultimate importance to clinical care, the time is appropriate to assess the field's strategic directions to optimize research and development activities. To characterize strategic directions in tissue engineering, a distant but reachable clinical goal was proposed and a worldwide body of 24(More)
The aim of this work was to introduce high-resolution computed tomography (micro-CT) for scaffolds made from soft natural biomaterials, and to compare these data with the conventional techniques scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Collagen-based scaffolds were used as examples. Unlike mineralized tissues, collagen scaffolds do not provide(More)