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Aziridinyl quinones can be activated by cellular reductases eg. DT-diaphorase and cytochrome P450 reductase to form highly reactive DNA alkylating agents. The mechanisms by which this activation and alkylation take place are many and varied. Using clinically relevant and experimental agents this review will describe many of these mechanisms. The agents(More)
SJG-136, a pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, is a highly efficient interstrand crosslinking agent that reacts with guanine bases in a 5'-GATC-3' sequence in the DNA minor groove. SJG-136 crosslinks form rapidly and persist compared to those produced by conventional crosslinking agents such as nitrogen mustard, melphalan or cisplatin which bind(More)
DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are critical lesions produced by several cancer chemotherapy agents including platinum drugs and nitrogen mustards. We have previously shown in haematological (multiple myeloma) and solid tumours (ovarian cancer) that clinical sensitivity to such agents can result from a defect in DNA ICL processing leading to their(More)
Members of the homologous series of alkanediol dimethanesulphonates of general formula H3C.SO2O.(CH2)n.O.SO2.CH3 have been tested for their ability to produce DNA interstrand crosslinking and DNA sequence selectivity of guanine-N7 alkylation. In a sensitive crosslinking gel assay the efficiency of DNA interstrand crosslink formation, dependent on the(More)
Metastatic cancer in adults usually has a fatal outcome. In contrast, advanced testicular germ cell tumours are cured in over 80% of patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy [1]. An understanding of why these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs is likely to have implications for the treatment of other types of cancer. Earlier(More)
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is associated with resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. It modulates DNA repair after radiation-induced damage through association with the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). We investigated the role of EGFR nuclear import and its association with DNA-PKcs on DNA repair after(More)
Patients with metastatic testis tumors are generally curable using chemotherapy, whereas those with disseminated bladder carcinomas are not. We have compared levels of the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase II in three testis (SuSa, 833K, and GH) and three bladder (RT4, RT112, and HT1376) cancer cell lines which differ in their sensitivity to chemotherapeutic(More)
The single cell gel electrophoresis comet assay has become established as a sensitive technique for measuring DNA strand breaks. The technique has been modified to allow the sensitive detection and quantitation of DNA interstrand cross-linking at the single cell level. Cells are irradiated immediately before analysis to deliver a fixed level of random(More)
Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine dimer SJG-136 (NSC 694501) selectively cross-links guanine residues located on opposite strands of DNA, and exhibits potent in vitro cytotoxicity. In addition, SJG-136 is highly active in vivo in hollow fiber assays. In the current investigation, SJG-136 was evaluated for in vivo efficacy in 10 tumor models selected on the(More)