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Drugs that produce DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), between the two complementary strands of the double helix, have an important role in chemotherapy regimens for cancer. Novel crosslinking agents, and targeting strategies involving DNA crosslinking agents, continue to be developed. The ability of cells to repair DNA ICLs is a critical determinant of(More)
Nitrogen mustards alkylate DNA primarily at the N7 position of guanine. Using an approach analogous to that of the Maxam-Gilbert procedure for DNA sequence analysis, we have examined the relative frequencies of alkylation for a number of nitrogen mustards at different guanine-N7 sites on a DNA fragment of known sequence. Most nitrogen mustards were found to(More)
SJG-136, a pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) dimer, is a highly efficient interstrand crosslinking agent that reacts with guanine bases in a 5'-GATC-3' sequence in the DNA minor groove. SJG-136 crosslinks form rapidly and persist compared to those produced by conventional crosslinking agents such as nitrogen mustard, melphalan or cisplatin which bind(More)
Metastatic cancer in adults usually has a fatal outcome. In contrast, advanced testicular germ cell tumours are cured in over 80% of patients using cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy [1]. An understanding of why these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs is likely to have implications for the treatment of other types of cancer. Earlier(More)
The anticancer drug cisplatin reacts with DNA leading to the formation of interstrand and intrastrand cross-links that are the critical cytotoxic lesions. In contrast to cells bearing mutations in other components of the nucleotide excision repair apparatus (XPB, XPD, XPG and CSB), cells defective for the ERCC1-XPF structure-specific nuclease are highly(More)
One of the major DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathways in mammalian cells is coupled to replication, but the mechanistic roles of the critical factors involved remain largely elusive. Here, we show that purified human SNM1A (hSNM1A), which exhibits a 5'-3' exonuclease activity, can load from a single DNA nick and digest past an ICL on its(More)
Members of the homologous series of alkanediol dimethanesulphonates of general formula H3C.SO2O.(CH2)n.O.SO2.CH3 have been tested for their ability to produce DNA interstrand crosslinking and DNA sequence selectivity of guanine-N7 alkylation. In a sensitive crosslinking gel assay the efficiency of DNA interstrand crosslink formation, dependent on the(More)
DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are critical lesions produced by several cancer chemotherapy agents including platinum drugs and nitrogen mustards. We have previously shown in haematological (multiple myeloma) and solid tumours (ovarian cancer) that clinical sensitivity to such agents can result from a defect in DNA ICL processing leading to their(More)
Aziridinyl quinones can be activated by cellular reductases eg. DT-diaphorase and cytochrome P450 reductase to form highly reactive DNA alkylating agents. The mechanisms by which this activation and alkylation take place are many and varied. Using clinically relevant and experimental agents this review will describe many of these mechanisms. The agents(More)
Isoflavones are plant compounds, proposed to have health benefits in a variety of human diseases, including coronary heart disease and endocrine-responsive cancers. Their physiological effects include possible antioxidant activity, therefore suggesting a role for isoflavones in the prevention of male infertility. The aim of this study was to test the(More)