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Myosins are motor proteins in cells. They move along actin by changing shape after making stereospecific interactions with the actin subunits. As these are arranged helically, a succession of steps will follow a helical path. However, if the myosin heads are long enough to span the actin helical repeat (approximately 36 nm), linear motion is possible.(More)
Unlike wild-type mouse melanocytes, where melanosomes are concentrated in dendrites and dendritic tips, melanosomes in dilute (myosin Va-) melanocytes are concentrated in the cell center. Here we sought to define the role that myosin Va plays in melanosome transport and distribution. Actin filaments that comprise a cortical shell running the length of the(More)
Mouse myosin V is a two-headed unconventional myosin with an extended neck that binds six calmodulins. Double-headed (heavy meromyosin-like) and single-headed (subfragment 1-like) fragments of mouse myosin V were expressed in Sf9 cells, and intact myosin V was purified from mouse brain. The actin-activated MgATPase of the tissue-purified myosin V, and its(More)
The contractile vacuole (CV) complex in Dictyostelium is a tubulovesicular osmoregulatory organelle that exhibits extensive motility along the actin-rich cortex, providing a useful model for investigating myosin-dependent membrane transport. Here, we show that the type V myosin myoJ localizes to CV membranes and is required for efficient osmoregulation, the(More)
Dictyostelium cells that lack the myoB isoform were previously shown to exhibit reduced efficiencies of phagocytosis and chemotactic aggregation ("streaming") and to crawl at about half the speed of wild-type cells. Of the four other Dictyostelium myosin I isoforms identified to date, myoC and myoD are the most similar to myoB in terms of tail domain(More)
Motile activities such as chemotaxis and phagocytosis, which occur in Dictyostelium cells lacking myosin II, may be dependent upon myosin I. To begin to explore this possibility, we have engineered a disruption of the Dictyostelium myosin I heavy chain (DMIHC) gene described recently (Jung, G., C. L. Saxe III, A. R. Kimmel, and J. A. Hammer III. 1989. Proc.(More)
Targeting of glutamate receptors (GluRs) to synapses involves rapid movement of intracellular receptors. This occurs in forms of synaptic upregulation of receptors, such as long-term potentiation. Thus, many GluRs are retained in a cytoplasmic pool in dendrites, and are transported to synapses for upregulation, presumably via motor proteins such as myosins(More)
Myosin V-null mice (dilute-lethal mutants) exhibit apparent neurological defects that worsen from birth until death in the third postnatal week. Although myosin V is enriched in brain, the neuronal function of myosin V is unclear and the underlying cause of the neurological defects in these mice is unknown. To aide in understanding myosin V function, we(More)
Actin retrograde flow and actomyosin II contraction have both been implicated in the inward movement of T cell receptor (TCR) microclusters and immunological synapse formation, but no study has integrated and quantified their relative contributions. Using Jurkat T cells expressing fluorescent myosin IIA heavy chain and F-tractin-a novel reporter for(More)
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) regulates water reabsorption in renal collecting duct principal cells. Its binding to Gs-coupled vasopressin V2 receptors increases cyclic AMP (cAMP) and subsequently elicits the redistribution of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane (AQP2 shuttle), thereby facilitating water(More)