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AIM To investigate whether pharmacogenetic loci or metabolite concentrations explain clinical response or side effects to AZA. METHODS Patients with IBD were given 2 mg/kg of AZA without dose escalation or adjustment. Serial clinical response, thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) activity and thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) concentrations were measured over(More)
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by thymine-uraciluria in homozygous deficient patients. Cancer patients with a partial deficiency of DPD are at risk of developing severe life-threatening toxicities after the administration of 5-fluorouracil. Thus, identification of novel disease-causing(More)
Inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase) deficiency is a common inherited condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of inosine triphosphate (ITP) in erythrocytes. The genetic basis and pathological consequences of ITPase deficiency are unknown. We have characterized the genomic structure of the ITPA gene, showing that it has eight(More)
Thiopurines [azathioprine (AZA), 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and thioguanine (6-TG)] have a well-established role as immunosuppressive agents in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, haematological neoplasia and in transplant rejection. Despite good overall clinical response rates, particularly when used as steroid sparing agents, adverse effects are a(More)
Significant numbers of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) do not adequately adhere to their treatment regimen. Failure to take the appropriate amount of prescribed medication may result in disease relapse. Although a number of research studies have sought to identify the factors associated with medication nonadherence in this(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatotoxicity results in the withdrawal of thiopurines drugs, azathioprine (AZA) and mercaptopurine (MP), in up to 10% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our group previously demonstrated that allopurinol with AZA/ciclosporin/steroid 'triple therapy' improved renal graft survival. AIM To confirm the hypothesis that allopurinol may(More)
The present experiment examined pilot response to the rapid cycling of automation. The experiment was conducted using a multi-task simulation environment consisting of tracking, fuel management, and system monitoring sub-tasks. Monitoring and fuel management sub-tasks were performed manually in all conditions. The tracking sub-task cycled between manual and(More)
OBJECTIVE Polymorphisms in the TPMT gene open reading frame (ORF) are associated with reduced TPMT activity. Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR*3 to VNTR*9) in the promoter region of the gene consisting of combinations of Type A, B and C repeat units, may modulate TPMT activity. Here we present the allele frequencies of genetic modifiers of TPMT activity(More)
Adenosine derivatives are frequently used in chemotherapy because of their potent antitumor, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. We investigated the metabolism of some adenosine analogues in adenosine deaminase inhibited normal and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficient human erythrocytes. The ATP and GTP concentrations and the formation of(More)
Incorporation of the adenine moiety of 2'-deoxyadenosine (dAdo) into ATP, consistently observed in human erythrocytes, is a phenomenon which cannot be explained by the operation of any known pathway. We reported previously that this effect was not observed in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient erythrocytes showing that adenine must be an obligatory(More)