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Increasing effort has been devoted to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying decision making during risk, yet little is known about the effect of voluntary choice on risk taking. The Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), in which subjects inflate a virtual balloon that can either grow larger or explode [Lejuez, C.W., Read, J.P., Kahler, C.W., Richards,(More)
The hippocampus has been proposed as the site of neural representation of large-scale environmental space, based upon the identification of place cells (neurons with receptive fields for current position in the environment) within the rat hippocampus and the demonstration that hippocampal lesions impair place learning in the rat. The inability to identify(More)
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is capable of noninvasively measuring blood flow by magnetically tagging the protons in arterial blood, which has been conventionally achieved using instantaneous (PASL) or continuous (CASL) RF pulses. As an intermediate method, pseudocontinuous ASL (pCASL) utilizes a train of discrete RF pulses to mimic continuous tagging that(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become the most widely used modality for visualizing regional brain activation in response to sensorimotor or cognitive tasks. While the majority of fMRI studies have used blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast as a marker for neural activation, baseline drift effects result in poor sensitivity for(More)
This paper compares the statistical power of BOLD and arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI for a variety of experimental designs within and across subjects. Based on theory and simulations, we predict that perfusion data are composed of independent observations in time under the null hypothesis, in contrast to BOLD data, which possess marked(More)
The neural substrates of mental image generation were investigated with functional MRI. Subjects listened to words under two different instructional conditions: to generate visual mental images of the words' referents, or to simply listen to each word and wait for the next word. Analyses were performed which directly compared the regional brain activity(More)
High-field arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI is appealing because it provides not only increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but also advantages in terms of labeling due to the increased relaxation time T(1) of labeled blood. In the present study, we provide a theoretical framework for the dependence of the ASL signal on the static field strength,(More)
Despite the prevalence of stress in everyday life and its impact on happiness, health, and cognition, little is known about the neural substrate of the experience of everyday stress in humans. We use a quantitative and noninvasive neuroimaging technique, arterial spin-labeling perfusion MRI, to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes associated with mild(More)
PURPOSE To test the feasibility of pediatric perfusion imaging using a pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique at 1.5 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS ASL perfusion imaging was carried out on seven neurologically normal children and five healthy adults. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the perfusion images along with T1, M(0), arterial transit time, and(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to estimate neural activity while subjects viewed strings of consonants, digits, and shapes. An area on or near the left fusiform gyrus was found that responded significantly more to letters than digits. Similar results were obtained when consonants were used whose visual features were matched with the(More)