Learn More
The C2 domain is a ubiquitous, conserved protein signaling motif widely found in eukaryotic signaling proteins. Although considerable functional diversity exists, most C2 domains are activated by Ca2+ binding and then dock to a specific cellular membrane. The C2 domains of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha),(More)
Many patients with diabetes mellitus (both type 1 and type 2) require therapy to maintain normal fasting glucose levels. To develop a novel treatment for these individuals, we used phage display technology to target the insulin receptor (INSR) complexed with insulin and identified a high affinity, allosteric, human monoclonal antibody, XMetA, which mimicked(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a potent mediator of inflammatory responses and plays a role in the differentiation of a number of lymphoid cells. In several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, serum levels of IL-1β are elevated and correlate with disease development and severity. The central role of the IL-1 pathway in several diseases has been validated by(More)
Many therapeutic antibodies act as antagonists to competitively block cellular signaling pathways. We describe here an approach for the therapeutic use of monoclonal antibodies based on context-dependent attenuation to reduce pathologically high activity while allowing homeostatic signaling in biologically important pathways. Such attenuation is achieved by(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is implicated in many autoinflammatory disorders, but is also important in defense against pathogens. Thus, there is a need to safely and effectively modulate IL-1β activity to reduce pathology while maintaining function. Gevokizumab is a potent anti-IL-1β antibody being developed as a treatment for(More)
The Drosophila compound entire second chromosome, C(2)EN, displays paternal transmission well below Mendelian expectations (NOVITSKI et al. 1981). Because C(2)EN stocks also show higher-than-expected rates of zygotic lethality, it was proposed that this reduced paternal inheritance might be wholly or partially due to postfertilization events. Efforts to(More)
Pleckstrin homology (PH) domains play a central role in a wide array of signaling pathways by binding second messenger lipids of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipid family. A given type of PIP lipid is formed in a specific cellular membrane where it is generally a minor component of the bulk lipid mixture. For example, the signaling lipid(More)
The second messenger lipid PIP(3) (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate) is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3)-specific pleckstrin homology (PH) domains to the membrane(More)
XMetA, a high-affinity, fully human monoclonal antibody, allosterically binds to and activates the insulin receptor (INSR). Previously, we found that XMetA normalized fasting glucose and glucose tolerance in insulinopenic mice. To determine whether XMetA is also beneficial for reducing hyperglycaemia due to the insulin resistance of obesity, we have now(More)
Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies act as antagonists to receptors by targeting and blocking the natural ligand binding site (orthosteric site). In contrast, the use of antibodies to target receptors at allosteric sites (distinct from the orthosteric site) has not been extensively studied. This approach is especially important in metabolic diseases in(More)