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A promising countermeasure for fatigue in sustained aviation operations is stimulant administration. However, well-controlled, aviation-relevant studies of the efficacy of medications such as Dexedrine are virtually nonexistent. In this investigation, flight performance, mood, and alertness were evaluated in 10 UH-60 pilots during sleep deprivation periods(More)
Recent evidence suggests that underlying patterns of cortical activation may partially account for individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of sleep deprivation. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the activation of military pilots whose sleep-deprivation vulnerability previously was quantified. A Sternberg(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the effects of posture on the resting electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of sleep-deprived volunteers. METHODS EEG data were collected under two conditions at 13 separate time points. Testing was performed while subjects remained in a normal seated position and then repeated while subjects stood upright. RESULTS Results(More)
Fatigue is an insidious threat to aviation safety because of the impairments in alertness and performance it creates. The fatigue associated with sleep loss, shift work, and long duty cycles can cause aviators to become sloppy, inattentive, careless, and inefficient. The only cure for fatigue is adequate sleep; however, gaining sufficient amounts of sleep(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the effects of posture on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance in 16 sleep-deprived volunteers. METHODS EEG data were collected while participants completed 10 min PVTs under two counterbalanced sitting/standing conditions during 28 h of continuous wakefulness. RESULTS In(More)
RATIONALE In 1998, the FDA approved modafinil for treating excessive daytime sleepiness in narcoleptics, and this has raised questions about the appropriateness of this compound for enhancing alertness in sleep-deprived controls. This study explored the efficacy of modafinil for maintaining the performance of volunteers required to accomplish highly(More)
Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance(More)
Individual differences in cognitive functioning during extended work hours and shift work are of considerable magnitude, and observed both in the laboratory and in the workplace. These individual differences have a biological basis in trait-like, differential vulnerability to fatigue from sleep loss and circadian misalignment. Trait-like vulnerability is(More)
We developed an algorithm to extract and combine EEG spectral features, which effectively classifies cognitive states and is robust in the presence of sensor noise. The algorithm uses a partial-least squares (PLS) algorithm to decompose multi-sensor EEG spectra into a small set of components. These components are chosen such that they are linearly(More)
OBJECTIVES This study evaluated oculometrics as a detector of fatigue in Air Force-relevant tasks after sleep deprivation. Using the metrics of total eye closure duration (PERCLOS) and approximate entropy (ApEn), the relation between these eye metrics and fatigue-induced performance decrements was investigated. BACKGROUND One damaging effect to the(More)