Learn More
As part of the USA's National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza, an Interagency Strategic Plan for the Early Detection of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Avian Influenza in Wild Migratory Birds was developed and implemented. From 1 April 2006 through 31 March 2009, 261,946 samples from wild birds and 101,457 wild bird fecal samples were collected in the USA; no highly(More)
Although pseudorabies virus can affect a wide range of mammalian and avian hosts, swine are the only natural hosts of the virus. The US commercial swine industry obtained pseudorabies-free status in 2004, which was important because of the economic value of domestic swine production; however, feral swine remain competent hosts and represent a constant(More)
Avian bornaviruses (ABV), identified in 2008, infect captive parrots and macaws worldwide. The natural reservoirs of these viruses are unknown. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to screen oropharyngeal/cloacal swab and brain samples from wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) for ABV. Approximately 2.9% of swab samples were positive for bornavirus(More)
Avian bornavirus (ABV) matrix (M) genes were detected by RT-PCR on brain tissue obtained from 192 mute swans harvested from several Northeastern states. A RT-PCR product was detected in 45 samples. Sequencing of the PCR products confirmed the presence of ABV belonging to the 'goose' genotype. The prevalence of positive samples ranged from 28% in Michigan to(More)
A novel highly pathogenic avian influenza virus belonging to the H5 clade 2.3.4.4 variant viruses was detected in North America in late 2014. Motivated by the identification of these viruses in domestic poultry in Canada, an intensive study was initiated to conduct highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in wild birds in the Pacific Flyway of the(More)
Avian influenza is a viral disease that primarily infects wild and domestic birds, but it also can be transmitted to a variety of mammals. In 2006, the United States of America Departments of Agriculture and Interior designed a large-scale, interagency surveillance effort that sought to determine if highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were present in(More)
To determine whether, and to what extent, influenza A subtype H3 viruses were present in feral swine in the United States, we conducted serologic and virologic surveillance during October 2011-September 2012. These animals were periodically exposed to and infected with A(H3N2) viruses, suggesting they may threaten human and animal health.
Subtype H7 avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) have caused at least 500 confirmed human infections since 2003 and culling of >75 million birds in recent years. Here we antigenically and genetically characterized 93 AIV isolates from North America (85 from migratory waterfowl [1976-2010], 7 from domestic poultry [1971-2012], and 1 from a seal [1980]).(More)
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses. IAV subtype is determined on the basis of the viral surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA). To date, 18 HA and 11 NA subtypes have been reported (Tong et al., 2012). IAVs can cause sporadic infections, local epidemics, and global pandemics among humans. In(More)