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AIMS To characterize bacteria associated with Zn/Cd-accumulating Salix caprea regarding their potential to support heavy metal phytoextraction. METHODS AND RESULTS Three different media allowed the isolation of 44 rhizosphere strains and 44 endophytes, resistant to Zn/Cd and mostly affiliated with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi.(More)
Reduction of tympanal hearing organs is repeatedly found amongst insects and is associated with weakened selection for hearing. There is also an associated wing reduction, since flight is no longer required to evade bats. Wing reduction may also affect sound production. Here, the auditory system in four silent grasshopper species belonging to the Podismini(More)
In Tettigoniidae (Orthoptera: Ensifera), hearing organs are essential in mate detection. Male tettigoniids usually produce calling songs by tegminal stridulation, whereas females approach the males phonotactically. This unidirectional communication system is the most common one among tettigoniids. In several tettigoniid lineages, females have evolved(More)
Unisexual reproduction is a widespread phenomenon in invertebrates and lower vertebrates. If a former sexual reproducing species becomes parthenogenetic, we expect traits that were subject to sexual selection to diminish. The bushcricket Poecilimon intermedius is one of the few insect species with obligate but diploid parthenogenetic reproduction. We(More)
Insect ears evolved many times independently. As a consequence, a striking diversity exists in the location, construction and behavioural implementation of ears. In this review, we first summarise what is known about the evolutionary origin of ears and the presumed precursor organs in the various insect groups. Thereafter, we focus on selective forces for(More)
BACKGROUND Insect ears contain very different numbers of sensory cells, from only one sensory cell in some moths to thousands of sensory cells, e.g. in cicadas. These differences still await functional explanation and especially the large numbers in cicadas remain puzzling. Insects of the different orders have distinct developmental sequences for the(More)
Audition in insects is of polyphyletic origin. Tympanal ears derived from proprioceptive or vibratory receptor organs, but many questions of the evolution of insect auditory systems are still open. Despite the rather typical bauplan of the insect body, e.g., with a fixed number of segments, tympanal ears evolved at very different places, but only ensiferans(More)
Comparative studies of the organization of nervous systems and sensory organs can reveal their evolution and specific adaptations. In the forelegs of some Ensifera (including crickets and tettigoniids), tympanal hearing organs are located in close proximity to the mechanosensitive subgenual organ (SGO). In the present study, the SGO complex in the(More)
The auditory sense organ of Tettigoniidae (Insecta, Orthoptera) is located in the foreleg tibia and consists of scolopidial sensilla which form a row termed crista acustica. The crista acustica is associated with the tympana and the auditory trachea. This ear is a highly ordered, tonotopic sensory system. As the neuroanatomy of the crista acustica has been(More)
We investigated the neuroanatomy and physiology of the complex tibial organ of an atympanate ensiferan, the Gryllacridid Ametrus tibialis. This represents the first analysis of internal mechanoceptors in Gryllacridids. The complex tibial organ is tripartite consisting of a subgenual organ, intermediate organ and a homologue organ to the crista acustica of(More)