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BACKGROUND A large outbreak of the hemolytic-uremic syndrome caused by Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 occurred in Germany in May 2011. The source of infection was undetermined. METHODS We conducted a matched case-control study and a recipe-based restaurant cohort study, along with environmental, trace-back, and trace-forward(More)
In 2001, two residents of a nursing home in Lower Saxony, Germany, were diagnosed with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A systematic contact investigation of 188 residents yielded 19 confirmed or probable cases of acute or recent HBV infection and three persistent asymptomatic HBsAg carriers. Sequence analysis revealed that one carrier had high(More)
BACKGROUND This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. METHODS We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). RESULTS From(More)
This paper discusses computer-supported outbreak detection using routine surveillance data, as implemented at six institutes for infectious disease control in five European countries. We give an overview of the systems used at the Statens Serum Institut (Denmark), Health Protection Agency (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), Robert Koch Institute(More)
By the Protection against Infection Act new instruments were established for infectious disease surveillance in Germany. The main innovations were a shift of responsibility for notifications from clinicians to laboratories, the validation of cases by means of case definitions in local public health departments, and the electronic transmission of single case(More)
A high prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) virus infection of up to 80% has been reported for injecting drug users (IDUs) in prison communities. However, there are only very limited data available on the prevalence and course of HCV in young offenders. We performed a study on hepatitis C markers in the largest German Young Offenders' Institution (YOI), a prison(More)
Eight cases of Legionnaires' disease were identified among the 215 German passengers after a cruise to the Nordic Sea in August 2003. An unmatched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors and the source of infection. In total, eight passengers fulfilled the case definition, one of these died. Forty-two passengers served as controls. The(More)
Increasing 2-dose vaccination coverage has led to an interruption of endemic measles virus circulation in Germany. However, outbreaks after virus importation still occur and contribute to international transmission chains. Between 2003 and 2009, annual measles incidence ranged between 0.2 and 2.8 per 100,000 population. Immunization gaps have been(More)
In October 2012, a hepatitis A (HA) outbreak with 83 laboratory-confirmed cases occurred in Lower Saxony. We defined primary outbreak cases as people with laboratory-confirmed HA and symptom onset between 8 October and 12 November 2012, residing in or visiting the affected districts. Secondary outbreak cases were persons with symptom onset after 12 November(More)
BACKGROUND In the German federal state Lower Saxony, data on infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are collected systematically since 1997 based on reports by physicians and laboratories. Initially the data were collected by means of a specific established surveillance system, since 2001 they are(More)