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Best Practices for Justifying Fossil Calibrations
TLDR
A specimen-based protocol for selecting and documenting relevant fossils is presented and future directions for evaluating and utilizing phylogenetic and temporal data from the fossil record are discussed, to establish the best practices for justifying fossils used for the temporal calibration of molecular phylogenies. Expand
Integration of molecules and new fossils supports a Triassic origin for Lepidosauria (lizards, snakes, and tuatara)
TLDR
A Early/Middle Triassic date for the origin of Lepidosauria disagrees with previous estimates deep within the Permian and suggests the group evolved as part of the faunal recovery after the end-Permain mass extinction as the climate became more humid. Expand
Repression oflacPromoter as a Function of Distance, Phase and Quality of an AuxiliarylacOperator
TLDR
The tetrameric Lac repressor can bind simultaneously to twolacoperators on the same DNA molecule, thereby including the formation of a DNA loop, and repression increased significantly with decreasing inter-operator DNA length, indicating that the local Lac repression concentration at O1 is crucial for tight repression. Expand
Molecular timescales and the fossil record: a paleontological perspective.
TLDR
Evidence that the fossil record is inadequate for proposing a reliable external calibration date for the mammal–bird split is presented and the bird–lizard split is proposed as an alternative major evolutionary event, one of several potential external calibrations. Expand
Four well-constrained calibration points from the vertebrate fossil record for molecular clock estimates.
TLDR
It is plea for closer interactions between paleontologists and molecular biologists in studying the timescale of vertebrate evolution and proposes three qualitative, phylogenetic criteria that can be used within a comparative framework for the selection of well-constrained calibration dates from the vertebrate fossil record. Expand
Diffusible iodine‐based contrast‐enhanced computed tomography (diceCT): an emerging tool for rapid, high‐resolution, 3‐D imaging of metazoan soft tissues
TLDR
A critical review of the recent contributions to iodine‐based, contrast‐enhanced CT research is provided to enable researchers just beginning to employ contrast enhancement to make sense of this complex new landscape of methodologies. Expand
Homeotic effects, somitogenesis and the evolution of vertebral numbers in recent and fossil amniotes
TLDR
It is shown that the mammalian (synapsid) and reptilian lineages show early in their evolutionary histories clear divergences in axial developmental plasticity, in terms of both regionalization and meristic change, with basal synapsids sharing the conserved axial configuration of crown mammals, and basal reptiles demonstrating the plasticity of extant taxa. Expand
The phylogeny of early eureptiles: comparing parsimony and Bayesian approaches in the investigation of a basal fossil clade.
TLDR
The phylogenetic relationships of early eureptiles, consisting of captorhinids, diapsids, and protorothyridids, are investigated in a modern phylogenetic context using both parsimony and Bayesian approaches, suggesting a significant ecological shift in the early stages of diapsid evolution. Expand
Early loss and multiple return of the lower temporal arcade in diapsid reptiles
TLDR
It is shown that the lower temporal arcade was lost only once in diapsid evolution, and that the presence of the arch in "higher" diapsids is secondary, which is indicated by the different ratio between jugal and quadratojugal as well as by ontogeny. Expand
Integration of Bayesian molecular clock methods and fossil-based soft bounds reveals early Cenozoic origin of African lacertid lizards
TLDR
This study implements several new approaches in molecular dating to estimate the evolutionary ages of Lacertidae, an Old World family of lizards with a poor fossil record and uncertain phylogeny, and indicates much earlier origins for these clades than previously reported. Expand
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