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Sucrose (Suc) transporters belong to a large gene family. The physiological role of SUT1 proteins has been intensively investigated in higher plants, whereas that of SUT4 proteins is so far unknown. All three known Suc transporters from potato (Solanum tuberosum), SUT1, SUT2, and SUT4, are colocalized and their RNA levels not only follow a diurnal rhythm,(More)
Since Münch in the 1920s proposed that sugar transport in the phloem vascular system is driven by osmotic pressure gradients, his hypothesis has been strongly supported by evidence from herbaceous angiosperms. Experimental constraints made it difficult to test this proposal in large trees, where the distance between source and sink might prove incompatible(More)
The plant sucrose transporter SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose transport activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of(More)
Plant cells are directly connected by plasmodesmata that form channels through the cell wall and enable the intercellular movement of cytosolic solutes, membrane lipids and signalling molecules. Transport through plasmodesmata is regulated not only by a fixed size-exclusion limit, but also by physiological and pathological adaptation. To understand plant(More)
In plants, a complex cell wall protects cells and defines their shape. Cellulose fibrils form a multilayered network inside the cell-wall matrix that plays a direct role in controlling cell expansion. Resolving the structure of this network will allow us to comprehend the relationship of cellulose fibril orientation and growth. The fluorescent dye Pontamine(More)
Plasmodesmata (PD) play a key role in loading of sugars into the phloem. In plant species that employ the so-called active symplasmic loading strategy, sucrose that diffuses into their unique intermediary cells (ICs) is converted into sugar oligomers. According to the prevalent hypothesis, the oligomers are too large to pass back through PD on the bundle(More)
Despite more than 130 years of research, phloem loading is far from being understood in gymnosperms. In part this is due to the special architecture of their leaves. They differ from angiosperm leaves among others by having a transfusion tissue between bundle sheath and the axial vascular elements. This article reviews the somewhat inaccessible and/or(More)
Uptake of photoassimilates into the leaf phloem is the key step in carbon partitioning and phloem transport. Symplasmic and apoplasmic loading strategies have been defined in different plant taxa based on the abundance of plasmodesmata between mesophyll and phloem. For apoplasmic loading to occur, an absence of plasmodesmata is a sufficient but not a(More)
Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the(More)
During infection, many RNA viruses produce characteristic inclusion bodies that contain both viral and host components. These structures were first described over a century ago and originally termed "X-bodies," as their function was not immediately appreciated. Whilst some inclusion bodies may represent cytopathic by-products of viral protein(More)