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Pro- and mature BDNF activate very different receptors and intracellular pathways, potentially leading to either neuronal death or survival. Here we examined the biochemistry of endogenous BDNF in mouse neurons using sensitive reagents and found that pro-BDNF is rapidly converted intracellularly to mature BDNF, the latter being stored and released by(More)
A test system for detecting point mutations chemically induced in the germ cells of mice has been proposed in the past. In the present investigation the effect of the mutagenic substance methylnitrosourea (MNU) in such a test system was studied. Male mice 10–12 weeks of age of the inbred strain BALB/c Han. were treated with MNU. Doses ranging from 40–150(More)
Salinomycin raised hope to be effective in anti-cancer therapies due to its capability to overcome apoptosis-resistance in several types of cancer cells. Recently, its effectiveness against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells both in vitro and in vivo was demonstrated. However, the mechanism of action remained unclear. Latest studies implicated(More)
BACKGROUND The major immunological hurdle to successful porcine-to-human xenotransplantation is the acute vascular rejection (AVR), characterized by endothelial cell (EC) activation and perturbation of coagulation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its derivatives have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and protect against reactive oxygen species,(More)
Survival after liver transplantation (LTX) has decreased in Germany since the implementation of Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based liver allocation. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is known for its otherwise excellent outcome after LTX. The influence of MELD-based liver allocation and subsequent allocation policy alterations on the outcome(More)
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a primary liver cancer with increasing incidence worldwide. Despite all efforts made in past years, prognosis remains to be poor. At least in part, this might be explained by a pronounced resistance of CC cells to undergo apoptosis. Thus, new therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. In this study we investigated the(More)
Rapid apoptotic cell engulfment is crucial for prevention of inflammation and autoimmune diseases and is conducted by special immunocompetent cells like macrophages or immature dendritic cells. We recently demonstrated that endothelial cells (ECs) also participate in apoptotic cell clearance. However, in contrast to conventional phagocytes they respond with(More)
BACKGROUND Following pig-to-primate kidney transplantation, endothelial cell activation and xenogenic activation of the recipient's coagulation eventually leading to organ dysfunction and microthrombosis can be observed. In this study, we examined the effect of a TNF-receptor fusion protein (TNF-RFP) on endothelial cell activation and coagulopathy utilizing(More)