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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB1, HER1 in humans) is a receptor tyrosine kinase triggering signals across the plasma membranes of cells to determine cell fate. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate structural models of ErbB1 ectodomains. We show that, with minor rearrangements, the ErbB1 back-to-back dimer can align almost(More)
We used the free-energy perturbation (FEP) method in quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to compute the free-energy profile of the hydroxylation reaction in the enzyme p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH). k statistics were employed to analyze the FEP sampling including estimation of the sampling error. Various approximations of the(More)
Algorithmic improvements of the dimer method [G. Henkelman and H. Jonsson, J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7010 (1999)] are described in this paper. Using the limited memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) optimizer for the dimer translation greatly improves the convergence compared to the previously used conjugate gradient algorithm. It also saves one energy(More)
The flavoenzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) is essential for the enzymatic decomposition of neurotransmitters. While it is commonly accepted that the rate limiting step of the reaction is the stereoselective abstraction of a hydrogen from the substrate, the precise mechanism is unknown. We modeled the reaction of human MAO-B with benzylamine by means of QM/MM(More)
The role of quantum mechanical atom tunneling during the conversion of glutamate to methylaspartate catalyzed by glutamate mutase is investigated by quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations based on coupled cluster and density functional calculations. The use of instanton theory allows us to calculate the tunneling contributions of up to(More)
We present a method to analyze biased molecular-dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations, also known as umbrella sampling. In the limiting case of a strong bias, this method is equivalent to thermodynamic integration. It employs only quantities with easily controllable equilibration and greatly reduces the statistical errors compared to the standard weighted(More)
We present a microiterative adiabatic scheme for quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) energy minimization that fully optimizes the MM part in each QM macroiteration. This scheme is applicable not only to mechanical embedding but also to electrostatic and polarized embedding. The electrostatic QM/MM interactions in the microiterations are(More)
Umbrella sampling simulations, or biased molecular dynamics, can be used to calculate the free-energy change of a chemical reaction. We investigate the sources of different sampling errors and derive approximate expressions for the statistical errors when using harmonic restraints and umbrella integration analysis. This leads to generally applicable rules(More)
Umbrella integration is a method to analyze umbrella sampling simulations by calculating and integrating the mean force. Here, the method is extended to multidimensional reaction coordinates. Approximation of the probability distribution obtained from sampling by a multivariate normal distribution allows to calculate the mean force from the average and the(More)
Biological nitrogen fixation has been investigated beginning with the monoprotonated dinitrogen bound to the FeMo cofactor of nitrogenase up to the formation of the two ammonia molecules. The energy differences of the relevant intermediates, the reaction barriers, and potentially relevant side branches are presented. During the catalytic conversion,(More)