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Umbrella integration is a method to analyze umbrella sampling simulations by calculating and integrating the mean force. Here, the method is extended to multidimensional reaction coordinates. Approximation of the probability distribution obtained from sampling by a multivariate normal distribution allows to calculate the mean force from the average and the… (More)

The protonation of N2 bound to the active center of nitrogenase has been investigated using state-of-the-art density-functional theory calculations. Dinitrogen in the bridging mode is activated by forming two bonds to Fe sites, which results in a reduction of the energy for the first hydrogen transfer by 123 kJ/mol. The axial binding mode with open sulfur… (More)

The ring-opening reaction of the cyclopropylcarbinyl radical proceeds via heavy-atom tunneling at low temperature. We used instanton theory to calculate tunneling rates and kinetic isotope effects with on-the-fly calculation of energies by density functional theory (B3LYP). The accuracy was verified by explicitly correlated coupled-cluster calculations… (More)

Tumor necrosis factors, TNF and lymphotoxin-α (LT), are cytokines that bind to two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNF-receptor 1 and 2) to trigger their signaling cascades. The exact mechanism of ligand-induced receptor activation is still unclear. It is generally assumed that three receptors bind to the homotrimeric ligand to trigger a signaling event. Recent… (More)

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