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We applied a novel method to detect single or multiple exon deletions and amplifications in the BRCA1 gene. The test, called multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), uses probes designed to hybridize adjacently to the target sequence. After ligation, the joined probes are amplified and quantified. Our two diagnostic laboratories have tested(More)
BACKGROUND Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is an autosomal dominant condition caused by germline FLCN mutations, and characterised by fibrofolliculomas, pneumothorax and renal cancer. The renal cancer risk, cancer phenotype and pneumothorax risk of BHD have not yet been fully clarified. The main focus of this study was to assess the risk of renal cancer, the(More)
BACKGROUND Assessment of the clinical significance of unclassified variants (UVs) identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 is very important for genetic counselling. The analysis of co-segregation of the variant with the disease in families is a powerful tool for the classification of these variants. Statistical methods have been described in literature but these(More)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic instability syndrome characterized by developmental defects, bone marrow failure, and a high cancer risk. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished. The majority of patients (≈85%) belong to the subtypes A (≈60%), C (≈15%) or G (≈10%), while a minority (≈15%) is distributed over the remaining 12 subtypes. All(More)
BACKGROUND Although an increased cancer risk in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is established, data on the spectrum of tumors associated with the disease and the influence of germ-line STK11/LKB1 (serine/threonine kinase) mutation status are limited. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We analyzed the incidence of cancer in 419 individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, and 297(More)
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer is an autosomal dominant condition due to germline mutations in DNA-mismatch-repair genes, in particular MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Here we describe the application of a novel technique for the detection of genomic deletions in MLH1 and MSH2. This method, called multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, is a(More)
BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1(More)
Williams Syndrome (WS, [MIM 194050]) is a disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of 25-30 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. Several of these genes including those encoding cytoplasmic linker protein-115 (CYLN2) and general transcription factors (GTF2I and GTF2IRD1) are expressed in the brain and may contribute to the distinct neurological and cognitive(More)
Fanconi anaemia (FA) is an inherited disease with congenital and developmental abnormalities characterised by cellular cross linker hypersensitivity. FA is caused by mutations in any of so far 15 identified FANC genes, which encode proteins that interact in a common DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Individuals with FA have a high risk of developing acute(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood-onset pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is rare and differs from adult-onset disease in clinical presentation, with often unexplained mental retardation and dysmorphic features (MR/DF). Mutations in the major PAH gene, BMPR2, were reported to cause PAH in only 10-16% of childhood-onset patients. We aimed to identify more genes(More)