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The intrastriatal microcircuit is a predominantly inhibitory GABAergic network comprised of a majority of projection neurons [medium spiny neurons (MSNs)] and a minority of interneurons. The connectivity within this microcircuit is divided into two main categories: lateral connectivity between MSNs, and inhibition mediated by interneurons, in particular(More)
The shape, structure and connectivity of nerve cells are important aspects of neuronal function. Genetic and epigenetic factors that alter neuronal morphology or synaptic localization of pre- and post-synaptic proteins contribute significantly to neuronal output and may underlie clinical states. To assess the impact of individual genes and disease-causing(More)
Striatal fast-spiking (FS) interneurons are interconnected by gap junctions into sparsely connected networks. As demonstrated for cortical FS interneurons, these gap junctions in the striatum may cause synchronized spiking, which would increase the influence that FS neurons have on spiking by the striatal medium spiny (MS) neurons. Dysfunction of the basal(More)
MUSIC is a standard API allowing large scale neuron simulators to exchange data within a parallel computer during runtime. A pilot implementation of this API has been released as open source. We provide experiences from the implementation of MUSIC interfaces for two neuronal network simulators of different kinds, NEST and MOOSE. A multi-simulation of a(More)
Throughout our lifetime, activity-dependent changes in neuronal connection strength enable the brain to refine neural circuits and learn based on experience. Synapses can bi-directionally alter strength and the magnitude and sign depend on the millisecond timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic action potential firing. Recent findings on laboratory animals(More)
The neocortex in our brain stores long-term memories by changing the strength of connections between neurons. To date, the rules and mechanisms that govern activity-induced synaptic changes at human cortical synapses are poorly understood and have not been studied directly at a cellular level. Here, we made whole-cell recordings of human pyramidal neurons(More)
Shisa9 (initially named CKAMP44) has been identified as auxiliary subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and was shown to modulate its physiological properties. Shisa9 is a type-I transmembrane protein and contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that potentially interacts with cytosolic proteins. In this study, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that(More)
In the striatal microcircuit, fast-spiking (FS) interneurons have an important role in mediating inhibition onto neighboring medium spiny (MS) projection neurons. In this study, we combined computational modeling with in vitro and in vivo electrophysiological measurements to investigate FS cells in terms of their discharge properties and their synaptic(More)
Molecular and activity-based cues acting together are thought to guide retinal axons to their terminal sites in vertebrate optic tectum or superior colliculus (SC) to form an ordered map of connections. The details of mechanisms involved, and the degree to which they might interact, are still not well understood. We have developed a framework within which(More)
Neurons form networks by growing out neurites that synaptically connect to other neurons. During this process, neurites develop complex branched trees. Interestingly, the outgrowth of neurite branches is often accompanied by the simultaneous withdrawal of other branches belonging to the same tree. This apparent competitive outgrowth between branches of the(More)