Johannes Hirrlinger

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Accumulating evidence shows that several cell types have the capacity to secrete membrane proteins by incorporating them into exosomes, which are small lipid vesicles derived from the intralumenal membranes of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) of the endocytic pathway. Exosomes are expelled in the extracellular space upon fusion of the MVB with the plasma(More)
The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is essential for the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species in brain cells. A compromised GSH system in the brain has been connected with the oxidative stress occuring in neurological diseases. Recent data demonstrate that besides intracellular functions GSH has also important extracellular functions in brain.(More)
Until now, limitations in the ability to enrich adult NSCs (aNSCs) have hampered meaningful analysis of these cells at the transcriptome level. Here we show via a split-Cre technology that coincident activity of the hGFAP and prominin1 promoters is a hallmark of aNSCs in vivo. Sorting of cells from the adult mouse subependymal zone (SEZ) based on their(More)
The cells of the adult human brain consume approximately 20% of the oxygen utilized by the body although the brain comprises only 2% of the body weight. Reactive oxygen species, which are produced continuously during oxidative metabolism, are generated at high rates within the brain. Therefore, the defense against the toxic effects of reactive oxygen(More)
Peroxides are generated continuously in cells that consume oxygen. Among the different peroxides, hydrogen peroxide is the molecule that is formed in highest quantities. In addition, organic hydroperoxides are synthesized as products of cellular metabolism. Generation and disposal of peroxides is a very important process in the human brain, because cells of(More)
Inducible gene modification using the Cre/loxP system provides a valuable tool for the analysis of gene function in the active animal. GFAP-Cre transgenic mice have been developed to achieve gene recombination in astrocytes, the most abundant cells of the central nervous system, with pivotal roles during brain function and pathology. Unfortunately, these(More)
The release of glutathione disulfide has been considered an important process for the maintenance of a reduced thiol redox potential in cells during oxidative stress. In cultured rat astrocytes, permanent hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress caused a rapid increase in intracellular glutathione disulfide, which was followed by the appearance of(More)
The ability of neurons to detoxify exogenously applied peroxides was analyzed using neuron-rich primary cultures derived from embryonic rat brain. Incubation of neurons with H2O2 at an initial concentration of 100 microM (300 nmol/3 ml) led to a decrease in the concentration of the peroxide, which depended strongly on the seeding density of the neurons.(More)
Within the tripartite structure of vertebrate synapses, enwrapping astroglial processes regulate synaptic transmission by transmitter uptake and by direct transmitter release. We applied confocal and two-photon laser scanning microscopy to acutely isolated slices prepared from the brainstem of transgenic TgN(GFAP-EGFP) mice. In transversal sections(More)
Multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) are ATP-driven export pumps that mediate the export of organic anions from cells. So far only little information is available on expression and physiological functions of Mrps in brain. The expression of mRNAs of six Mrp paralogs in rat brain, as well as in rat cultures enriched for neurones, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes(More)