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We investigated whether and how prior knowledge activation improves learning outcomes for high school (less experienced learners) and university students (experienced learners) in a hypertext environment. Map coherence was defined as the extent to which relationships between the concepts in the map were made explicit. Therefore, we classified the mapping(More)
For designing effective and tailored instruction, valid instruments that measure the level of expertise are necessary. We propose a graph-oriented approach for in-depth analyses of knowledge structures. Therefore, four measures of integration and encapsulation of knowledge structures were validated in an experiment. Participants (six experts and six(More)
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