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The extreme obesity of the obese (ob/ob) mouse is attributable to mutations in the gene encoding leptin, an adipocyte-specific secreted protein which has profound effects on appetite and energy expenditure. We know of no equivalent evidence regarding leptin's role in the control of fat mass in humans. We have examined two severely obese children who are(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the prevalence and impact of overweight and obesity in an Australian obstetric population. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The Mater Mother's Hospital (MMH), South Brisbane, is an urban tertiary referral maternity hospital. We reviewed data for the 18 401 women who were booked for antenatal care at the MMH, delivered between January(More)
The presence of a diabetic cardiomyopathy, independent of hypertension and coronary artery disease, is still controversial. This systematic review seeks to evaluate the evidence for the existence of this condition, to clarify the possible mechanisms responsible, and to consider possible therapeutic implications. The existence of a diabetic cardiomyopathy is(More)
Partial exclusion mapping of the nonobese (NOD) diabetic mouse genome has shown linkage of diabetes to at least five different chromosomes. We have now excluded almost all of the genome for the presence of susceptibility genes with fully recessive effects and have obtained evidence of linkage of ten distinct loci to diabetes or the prediabetic lesion,(More)
Adiponectin is a recently described adipokine that has been recognized as a key regulator of insulin sensitivity and tissue inflammation. It is produced by adipose tissue (white and brown) and circulates in the blood at very high concentrations. It has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle and the vasculature, with prominent roles to improve hepatic(More)
Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells which is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. The major histocompatibility complex and the insulin gene region (INS) on human chromosomes 6p and 11p, respectively, contain susceptibility genes. Using a mostly French(More)
Human omental adipocytes display a range of biochemical properties that distinguish them from adipocytes of subcutaneous origin. However, information about site-related gene expression in human fat cells is limited. We have previously demonstrated that leptin mRNA is markedly overexpressed in abdominal subcutaneous (SC) compared with omental (Om)(More)
Chromosome locations of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes contributing to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in mice have been determined by outcrossing NOD mice to other inbred strains congenic for the NOD MHC haplotype (H2g7). At least nine non-MHC IDDM susceptibility genes (Idd) were previously identified at first backcross (BC1)(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor known to be central to both adipose tissue development and insulin action. Growth of adipose tissue requires differentiation of preadipocytes with acquisition of specific cellular functions including insulin sensitivity, leptin secretion and(More)
Adiponectin is a secreted, multimeric protein with insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and antiinflammatory properties. Serum adiponectin consists of trimer, hexamer, and larger high-molecular-weight (HMW) multimers, and these HMW multimers appear to be the more bioactive forms. Multimer composition of adiponectin appears to be regulated; however, the(More)