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Bupropion is applied in depression and smoking cessation. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6) may cause variability in bupropion pharmacokinetics since hydroxylation is known to be mediated by CYP2B6. Bupropion may be a probe drug for CYP2B6 activity in humans. Bupropion pharmacokinetics were studied after a single oral dose of 150 mg in(More)
For more than half a decade, lithium has been successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. Worldwide, it is considered the first-line mood stabilizer. Apart from its proven antimanic and prophylactic effects, considerable evidence also suggests an antisuicidal effect in affective disorders. Lithium is also effectively used to augment antidepressant drugs in(More)
We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a follow-up study of bipolar disorder (BD), a common neuropsychiatric disorder. In the GWAS, we investigated 499,494 autosomal and 12,484 X-chromosomal SNPs in 682 patients with BD and in 1300 controls. In the first follow-up step, we tested the most significant 48 SNPs in 1729 patients with BD and in(More)
BACKGROUND The late onset of therapeutic response and a relatively large proportion of nonresponders to antidepressants remain major concerns in clinical practice. Therefore, there is a critical need for effective medication strategies that augment treatment with antidepressants. METHODS To review the available evidence on the use of lithium as an(More)
INTRODUCTION Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a pathogenic mechanism of depression, and genetic polymorphisms in HPA axis genes have been described to influence response to antidepressant drugs. In particular, two polymorphisms in FKBP5, a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, were strongly associated with response to(More)
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the frequency of episodes and subsyndromal symptoms based on employment status in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 281) provided daily self-reported mood ratings for 5 months, returning 46,292 days of data. Data were analyzed using three employment status groups: disabled (n =(More)
With the widespread recognition of the value of active patient participation in their care, ChronoRecord software was developed to automate daily self-reporting by patients with bipolar disorder. A prior study demonstrated concurrent validity between self-ratings on ChronoRecord and clinician ratings on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), but(More)
OBJECTIVE This systematic review examines the evidence and discusses the clinical relevance of lithium augmentation as a treatment strategy for refractory major depressive episodes. It also examines hypotheses on the mode of action of lithium augmentation, with a focus on serotonin (5-HT) and neuroendocrine systems, and proposes recommendations for future(More)
Finding predictors of the response to antidepressant therapy is a major goal of molecular psychiatry. The genes encoding the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT1) transporters are among the possible candidate genes modulating an individual's antidepressant response. In a naturalistic prospective cohort study with a total of 190 fully assessed patients,(More)