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Hamilton's original work on inclusive fitness theory assumed additivity of costs and benefits. Recently, it has been argued that an exact version of Hamilton's rule for the spread of a pro-social allele (rb > c) holds under nonadditive pay-offs, so long as the cost and benefit terms are defined as partial regression coefficients rather than pay-off(More)
It is well known that the generation of oxygen radicals can cause neuronal death by both apoptosis and necrosis, which may lead to the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. In previous in vivo studies, nicotinamide was found to prevent both DNA fragmentation and apoptosis that were induced by free radical generating toxins like tertiary butylhydroperoxide(More)
In previous studies with mice the oxygen radical generating neurotoxin tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was used to mimic the oxidative injury that has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, previous studies have shown that the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor nicotinamide is able to prevent DNA fragmentation and(More)
Research has shown that a majority of children and young teenagers perceive computer science and computer science related careers to be boring, difficult, and antisocial in nature , despite the fact that this age group spends a large amount of time connected to the internet through social media, hand-held devices and video games. Several approaches and(More)
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