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Collagens and proteins with collagen-like domains form large superfamilies in various species, and the numbers of known family members are increasing constantly. Vertebrates have at least 27 collagen types with 42 distinct polypeptide chains, >20 additional proteins with collagen-like domains and approximately 20 isoenzymes of various collagen-modifying(More)
The collagen superfamily of proteins plays a dominant role in maintaining the integrity of various tissues and also has a number of other important functions. The superfamily now includes more than 20 collagen types with altogether at least 38 distinct polypeptide chains, and more than 15 additional proteins that have collagen-like domains. Most collagens(More)
The activity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF, an alphabeta heterodimer that has an essential role in adaptation to low oxygen availability, is regulated by two oxygen-dependent hydroxylation events. Hydroxylation of specific proline residues by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases targets the HIF-alpha subunit for proteasomal destruction, whereas(More)
The collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), enzymes residing within the endoplasmic reticulum, have a central role in the biosynthesis of collagens. In addition, cytoplasmic P4Hs play a critical role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIFalpha. Collagen and HIF P4Hs constitute enzyme families as several isoenzymes have been(More)
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) is regulated by two oxygen-dependent events that are catalyzed by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) and HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have purified the three recombinant human HIF-P4Hs to near homogeneity and characterized their catalytic properties and inhibition and those of FIH. The specific(More)
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, the key enzyme of collagen synthesis, is an alpha2beta2 tetramer, the beta subunit of which is protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Coexpression of the human alpha subunit and PDI in Pichia produced trace amounts of an active tetramer. A much higher, although still low, assembly level was obtained using a Saccharomyces pre-pro sequence(More)
The stability and transcriptional activity of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are regulated by two oxygen-dependent events that are catalyzed by three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) and one HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have studied possible links between metabolic pathways and HIF hydroxylases by analyzing the abilities of citric acid(More)
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (proline hydroxylase, EC 1.14.11.2) catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. The vertebrate enzyme is an alpha2beta2 tetramer, the beta subunit of which is identical to protein disulfide-isomerase (PDI, EC 5.3.4.1). We report here on cloning of the recently discovered alpha(II) subunit from human sources. The mRNA for(More)
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.2), an alpha2beta2 tetramer, catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. We converted 16 residues in the human alpha subunit individually to other amino acids, and expressed the mutant polypeptides together with the wild-type beta subunit in insect cells. Asp414Ala and Asp414Asn inactivated the enzyme(More)
Human Argonaute (Ago) proteins are essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Argonaute 2 (Ago2) has a P-element-induced wimpy testis (PIWI) domain, which folds like RNase H and is responsible for target RNA cleavage in RNA interference. Proteins such as Dicer, TRBP, MOV10, RHA, RCK/p54 and KIAA1093 associate with Ago proteins and(More)