Johanna Myllyharju

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The stability and transcriptional activity of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are regulated by two oxygen-dependent events that are catalyzed by three HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) and one HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have studied possible links between metabolic pathways and HIF hydroxylases by analyzing the abilities of citric acid(More)
The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play a central role in oxygen homeostasis. Hydroxylation of one or two critical prolines by specific hydroxylases (P4Hs) targets their HIF-alpha subunits for proteasomal degradation. By studying the three human HIF-P4Hs, we found that the longest and shortest isoenzymes have major transcripts encoding inactive(More)
Collagens and proteins with collagen-like domains form large superfamilies in various species, and the numbers of known family members are increasing constantly. Vertebrates have at least 27 collagen types with 42 distinct polypeptide chains, >20 additional proteins with collagen-like domains and approximately 20 isoenzymes of various collagen-modifying(More)
Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) is regulated by two oxygen-dependent events that are catalyzed by the HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) and HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase (FIH). We have purified the three recombinant human HIF-P4Hs to near homogeneity and characterized their catalytic properties and inhibition and those of FIH. The specific(More)
The collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), enzymes residing within the endoplasmic reticulum, have a central role in the biosynthesis of collagens. In addition, cytoplasmic P4Hs play a critical role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIFalpha. Collagen and HIF P4Hs constitute enzyme families as several isoenzymes have been(More)
The activity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF, an alphabeta heterodimer that has an essential role in adaptation to low oxygen availability, is regulated by two oxygen-dependent hydroxylation events. Hydroxylation of specific proline residues by HIF prolyl 4-hydroxylases targets the HIF-alpha subunit for proteasomal destruction, whereas(More)
The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) controls (in an oxygen-dependent manner) the expression of a large number of genes whose products are involved in the response of cells to hypoxia. HIF is an αβ dimer that binds to hypoxia response elements (HREs) in its target genes. Human HIF-α has three isoforms, HIF-1α, HIF-2α and HIF-3α, of which the(More)
The discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2 are cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases that are activated by triple-helical collagen. While normal DDR signalling regulates fundamental cellular processes, aberrant DDR signalling is associated with several human diseases. We previously identified GVMGFO (O is hydroxyproline) as a major DDR2 binding site in(More)
The activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4) is translationally induced under anoxic conditions, mediates part of the unfolded protein response following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and is a critical regulator of cell fate. Here, we identified the zipper II domain of ATF-4 to interact with the oxygen sensor prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain 3 (PHD3). The(More)
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.11.2), an alpha2beta2 tetramer, catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline in collagens. We converted 16 residues in the human alpha subunit individually to other amino acids, and expressed the mutant polypeptides together with the wild-type beta subunit in insect cells. Asp414Ala and Asp414Asn inactivated the enzyme(More)