Johanna M. Ward

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This article presents a new instrument with which to assess the effects of opiate treatment. The Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) is multi-dimensional in structure, with scales measuring six independently measured outcome domains: drug use; HIV risk-taking behaviour; social functioning; criminality; health; and psychological adjustment. Psychometric properties(More)
The initiation and maintenance of substantial behaviour change is required to reduce the spread of HIV infection among the intravenous drug-using population. In order to ascertain the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing HIV-related risk-taking behaviour among this population, valid and reliable (yet preferably short) instruments for measuring such(More)
Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) involves the daily administration of the oral opioid agonist methadone as a treatment for opioid dependence-a persistent disorder with a substantial risk of premature death. MMT improves health and reduces illicit heroin use, infectious-disease transmission, and overdose death. However, its effectiveness is compromised(More)
The efficient and accurate measurement of recent drug use is an essential component of treatment and research among opioid users. Urinalysis results alone will not give sufficient information to either the clinician or researcher, due to limitations in detection and an inability to distinguish extent of use. The present paper describes a 'recent use(More)
Food availability is thought to strongly influence the leaving phase of natal dispersal in animals with condition-dependent dispersal. We conducted a food supplementation experiment to determine the influence of extra food on the onset of dispersal and early dispersal movement patterns of 42 radio-tagged northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis atricapillus)(More)
This paper examines the changes that have occurred in methadone maintenance programmes in response to the advent of HIV and the adoption of harm minimization policies, and the implications of these changes for research. A need for the use of more rigorous research methods is identified and recommendations are made that take into account both the ethical and(More)
This paper uses the New South Wales experience with methadone maintenance treatment in prison to address the question: should methadone maintenance treatment be provided in Australian prisons for opioid-dependent prisoners? First, it outlines three rationales for providing drug dependence treatment in prisons: as a way of giving prisoners access to(More)