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The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major concern thought to impact on immunologic escape and eventual vaccine efficacy. Here, simple and rapid methods are described for the detection and estimation of genetic divergence between HIV strains on the basis of the observation that DNA heteroduplexes formed between related sequences(More)
The genetic diversity of the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates was studied. HIV-1 isolates were obtained from eight countries in Africa: Djibouti, Gabon, Kenya, Senegal, Somalia, Uganda, Zaire, and Zambia. The DNA sequences encoding the complete HIV-1 envelope protein were PCR amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of genetic variation among internationally collected HIV-1 isolates, to analyse phylogenetic relationships and the geographic distribution of different variants. DESIGN Phylogenetic comparison of 70 HIV-1 isolates collected in 15 countries on four continents. METHODS To sequence the complete gag genome of HIV-1(More)
At least five distinct genetic subtypes (genotypes) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been identified by DNA sequencing. Current vaccine candidates are based on virus strains from North America and Europe that represent only one subtype. The extent to which distinct genotypes of HIV-1 correspond to antigenically distinguishable serotypes(More)
SUMMARY For 4 years. we determined the mode and risk of mother-to-child transmission of HTLV-I in a prospective cohort of 34 children born to seropositive mothers in Franceville, Gabon. We also determined the prevalence of antibodies to HTLV-I/II in siblings born to seropositive mothers. Antibodies to HTLV-I/II were detected by Western blot, and the(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify HIV-1 envelope sequence subtypes in infected individuals from the Russian Federation and Belarus. PATIENTS A cohort of children infected after exposure to non-sterile needles during the 1988-1989 HIV-1 epidemic in southern Russia (n = 20) and HIV-1-seropositive individuals from Russia (n = 1) and Belarus (n = 7) infected via sexual(More)
The spread of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is by now virtually worldwide. An understanding of the genetic, biological, and immunological differences among isolates collected in different geographic locales is crucial for the development of globally effective vaccines. Here we report the genetic characteristics of 21 HIV-1 isolates from(More)
A cluster sampling survey was performed in 1989 in Libreville, Gabon, to determine HTLV-I and HTLV-II prevalence and to compare the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serology in detecting HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections. A total of 322 sera from adults were tested by ELISA and by Western blot (WB). The WB patterns were interpreted according to(More)
Primer pairs in the HIV-1 POL and ENV genes were evaluated by performing a PCR on lysed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 96 HIV-1 seropositive and 40 seronegative individuals originating from 16 different geographical localities in Africa, Europe and Haiti. A single PCR using primer pairs to the LTR, GAG and ENV regions and detection by(More)