Johann Sebastian Braun

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Infections are a leading cause of death in stroke patients. In a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia, we tested the hypothesis that a stroke-induced immunodeficiency increases the susceptibility to bacterial infections. 3 d after ischemia, all animals developed spontaneous septicemia and pneumonia. Stroke induced an extensive apoptotic loss of(More)
Half of the survivors of bacterial meningitis experience motor deficits, seizures, hearing loss or cognitive impairment, despite adequate bacterial killing by antibiotics. We demonstrate that the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl-ketone (z-VAD-fmk) prevented hippocampal neuronal cell death and white blood cell(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bacterial pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients sustaining acute stroke and is believed to result from an increased aspiration. Recently, stroke-induced immunodeficiency was described in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia, which is primarily caused by overactivation of sympathetic nervous system. We tested if(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during inflammation is an essential element of antimicrobial immunity but can also contribute to host-induced tissue damage. Under conditions of bacterial sepsis, large amounts of NO are produced, causing hypotension, a critical pathological feature of septic shock. In sepsis caused by(More)
This report deals with the distribution, morphology and specific topical relationships of bone-marrow-derived cells (free cells) in the spinal meninges and dorsal root ganglia of the normal rat. The morphology of these cells has been studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Cells expressing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class(More)
Stroke affects the normally well-balanced interplay of the 2 supersystems: the nervous and the immune system. Recent research elucidated some of the involved signals and mechanisms and, importantly, was able to demonstrate that brain-immune interactions are highly relevant for functional outcome after stroke. Immunodepression after stroke increases the(More)
Major barriers separating the blood from tissue compartments in the body are composed of endothelial cells. Interaction of bacteria with such barriers defines the course of invasive infections, and meningitis has served as a model system to study endothelial cell injury. Here we report the impressive ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae, clinically one of(More)
Infarction size and infections are important determinants of stroke outcome in humans. Bacterial infections are promoted by stroke-induced immunodeficiency which in experimental stroke is mainly characterized by extensive lymphocyte apoptosis and dysfunction. Pharmacological inhibition of caspases may improve stroke outcome not only by reducing apoptotic(More)
Innate immunity relies on pattern recognition receptors to detect the presence of infectious pathogens. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, binding of bacterial lipopeptides to TLR2 is currently regarded as an important mechanism. In the present study, we used the synthetic bacterial lipopeptide Pam3CysSK4, a selective TLR2 agonist, to induce meningeal(More)
BACKGROUND Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) are leading causes of bacterial meningitis in neonates and children. Each pathogen produces a pore-forming cytolytic toxin, β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-h/c) by GBS and pneumolysin by SP. The aim of this study was to understand the role of these pore-forming cytotoxins, in particular of(More)