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Hepatobiliary transporters are down-regulated in toxic and cholestatic liver injury. Cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) are attributed to mediate this regulation, but their particular contribution in vivo is still unknown. Thus, we studied the molecular mechanisms by which Ntcp, Oatp1, Oatp2, and(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrosis concurs with chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), a phenomenon that contributes to the resistance to restore and maintain sinus rhythm (SR). Fibrogenesis represents a complex process in which the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) pathway may play a major role, e.g. in the setting of myocardial infarction. The present study(More)
Controversy persists about mixed chimerism (mCh) occurring in the hearts of patients after orthotopic cardiac transplantation in comparison with allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) transplants. Cadaver hearts were examined after sex-mismatched transplantation by immunophenotyping combined with dual color fluorescence in situ(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common human arrhythmia, is responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality and may be promoted by selective atrial ischemia and atrial fibrosis. Consequently, we investigated markers for hypoxia and angiogenesis in AF. METHODS Right atrial appendages (n=158) were grouped according to heart rhythm [sinus(More)
INTRODUCTION Atrial fibrosis has been shown to concur with the persistence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and is only incompletely reversible, thus counteracting attempts to restore and maintain sinus rhythm (SR). Besides the angiotensin system, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a major role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Thus, the present study(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Numerous studies implicate transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling in liver fibrogenesis. To perturb the TGF-beta pathway during this process, we overexpressed Smad7, an intracellular antagonist of TGF-beta signaling, in vivo and in primary-cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). METHODS Ligation of the common bile duct (BDL) was(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C is frequently associated with increased hepatic iron stores. It remains controversial whether heterozygous mutations of hemochromatosis genes affect fibrosis progression. Therefore our aim was to assess associations between HFE mutations and hepatic inflammation and stage of fibrosis in German hepatitis C patients. METHODS(More)
Fibrogenesis or scarring of the liver is a common consequence of all chronic liver diseases. Here we refine a quantitative trait locus that confers susceptibility to hepatic fibrosis by in silico mapping and show, using congenic mice and transgenesis with recombined artificial chromosomes, that the gene Hc (encoding complement factor C5) underlies this(More)
BACKGROUND Non-organ-specific autoantibodies are found in a considerable number of anti-HCV positive patients. Previous studies investigated the clinical relevance of these antibodies in patients treated with interferon monotherapy, but not combination therapies. METHODS Anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-mitochondrial, anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmatic(More)
BACKGROUND Cardioversion (CV) success of atrial fibrillation (AF) inversely correlates to the size of the left atrium (LA). Atrial fibrillation and its most important risk factor, congestive heart failure (CHF), both induce atrial structural enlargement and fibrosis. To investigate the effect of AF and CHF on atrial dilatation and fibrosis, and to estimate(More)