Johann D D Pitout

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The medical community relies on clinical expertise and published guidelines to assist physicians with choices in empirical therapy for system-based infectious syndromes, such as community-acquired pneumonia and urinary-tract infections (UTIs). From the late 1990s, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (mostly Escherichia coli) that produce(More)
Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were originally identified in the USA in 1996. Since then, these versatile β-lactamases have spread internationally among Gram-negative bacteria, especially K pneumoniae, although their precise epidemiology is diverse across countries and regions. The mortality described among patients infected with organisms(More)
Enterobacteriaceae, especially Klebsiella spp. producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) such as SHV and TEM types, have been established since the 1980s as a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Appropriate infection control practices have largely prevented the dissemination of these bacteria within many hospitals, although outbreaks have(More)
Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) typically cause nosocomial infections. Previous surveillance in the Calgary Health Region showed that Escherichia coli strains producing ESBLs were common among community patients. During the period (2000 to 2002): 23 of 157 (15%) of the strains were positive for blaCTX-M genes from the(More)
BACKGROUND Infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in frequency and are associated with high mortality rates. Circulation of CTX-M-type ESBLs in the community is of particular concern, because it may confound standard infection-control measures. METHODS We analyzed the results of(More)
We analyzed 43 CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates and 6 plasmids encoding the blaCTX-M-15 gene from Canada, India, Kuwait, France, Switzerland, Portugal, and Spain. Most isolates belonged to phylogroups B2 (50%) and D (25%). An EC-B2 strain of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 131 was detected in all countries; other B2 isolates corresponded to(More)
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a globally disseminated, multidrug resistant (MDR) clone responsible for a high proportion of urinary tract and bloodstream infections. The rapid emergence and successful spread of E. coli ST131 is strongly associated with several factors, including resistance to fluoroquinolones, high virulence gene content,(More)
Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 emerged in the 2000s as important human pathogens, have spread extensively throughout the world, and are responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, respectively. E. coli ST131 causes extraintestinal infections and is often(More)
A study was designed to characterize nonrepeat isolates of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae obtained from the SMART worldwide surveillance program during 2008 and 2009. Characterization was done by PCR and sequencing for bla(VIM), bla(IMP), bla(NDM), bla(OXA), bla(KPC), and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and virulence factors (VFs). Genetic(More)
A study was designed to evaluate the modified Hodge test (MHT), Mastdiscs ID inhibitor combination disks (MDI), Rosco Diagnostica Neo-Sensitabs (RDS), metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) Etest, and in-house multiplex PCR for the detection of well-characterized carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. One hundred forty-two nonrepeat clinical isolates of(More)