Johan van Griensven

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BACKGROUND The shortage of human resources for health, and in particular physicians, is one of the major barriers to achieve universal access to HIV care and treatment. In September 2005, a pilot program of nurse-centered antiretroviral treatment (ART) prescription was launched in three rural primary health centers in Rwanda. We retrospectively evaluated(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the 9-month HIV-free survival of children with two strategies to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission. DESIGN Nonrandomized interventional cohort study. SETTING Four public health centres in Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS Between May 2005 and January 2007, all consenting HIV-infected pregnant women were included. INTERVENTION Women(More)
Leishmaniasis is a vector-born chronic infectious disease caused by a group of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Whereas most immunocompetent individuals will not develop disease after Leishmania infection, immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for disease. The most severe form is visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is typically(More)
BACKGROUND Although a number of studies have shown good results in treating children with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in hospital settings, there is limited published information on results in pediatric programs that are nurse-centered and based in health centers, in particular on the psychosocial aspects of care. METHODS Program treatment and outcome(More)
This cohort study was conducted to report on the incidence, timing and risk factors for stavudine (d4T)- and nevirapine (NVP)-related severe drug toxicity (requiring substitution) with a generic fixed-dose combination under program conditions in Kigali, Rwanda. Probability of 'time to first toxicity-related drug substitution' was estimated using the(More)
Combination therapy for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has increasingly been advocated as a way to increase treatment efficacy and tolerance, reduce treatment duration and cost, and limit the emergence of drug resistance. We reviewed the evidence and potential for combination therapy, and the criteria for the choice of drugs in such regimens. The(More)
BACKGROUND Reports on treatment outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in India are lacking. To our knowledge, none have studied the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B in VL-HIV coinfection. We report the 2-year treatment outcomes of VL-HIV-coinfected patients treated with liposomal amphotericin B followed(More)
Among adults eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Thyolo (rural Malawi) and Kibera (Nairobi, Kenya), this study (a) reports on retention and attrition during the preparation phase and after starting ART and (b) identifies risk factors associated with attrition. 'Retention' implies being alive and on follow-up, whilst 'attrition' implies loss to(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007 WHO issued a guideline to improve the diagnosis of smear-negative and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in HIV-positive patients. This guideline relies heavily on the acceptance of HIV-testing and availability of chest X-rays. METHODS AND FINDINGS Cohort study of TB suspects in four tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We(More)
BACKGROUND Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL; also known as kala-azar) is an ultimately fatal disease endemic in the Indian state of Bihar, while HIV/AIDS is an emerging disease in this region. A 2011 observational cohort study conducted in Bihar involving 55 VL/HIV co-infected patients treated with 20-25 mg/kg intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome)(More)