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Models of Parkinson's disease (PD) based on selective neuronal death have been used to study pathogenic mechanisms underlying nigral cell death and in some instances to develop symptomatic therapies. For validation of putative neuroprotectants, a model is desirable in which the events leading to neurodegeneration replicate those occurring in the disease. We(More)
Since it was discovered that the hematopoietic hormone erythropoetin (EPO) exerts neuroprotective effects in the CNS, many studies on the EPO receptor (EPOR) function and localisation in the CNS have been performed. For this purpose, commercially available anti-EPOR antibodies have often been applied. As the literature data on these antibodies show(More)
The pathogenesis of stroke, trauma and chronic degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been linked to excitotoxic processes due to inappropriate stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R). Attempts to use potent competitive NMDA-R antagonists as neuroprotectants have shown serious side-effects in patients. As an(More)
In addition to its well-known hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin (EPO) also has neuroprotective properties. However, hematopoietic side effects are unwanted for neuroprotection, underlining the need for EPO-like compounds with selective neuroprotective actions. One such compound, devoid of hematopoietic bioactivity, is the chemically modified,(More)
There is compelling evidence that a unique innate immune response in the CNS plays a critical role in host defense and clearance of toxic cell debris. Although complement has been implicated in neuronal impairment, axonal loss, and demyelination, some preliminary evidence suggests that the initial insult consequently activates surrounding cells to signal(More)
Chronic treatment with asialo erythropoietin (ASIALO-EPO) or carbamylated erythropoietin (CEPO) improved motor behavior and reduced motoneuron loss and astrocyte and microglia activation in the cervical spinal cord of wobbler mice, an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but had no effect on hematocrit values. ASIALO-EPO and CEPO, like the parent(More)
Classical immunology textbooks have described the central nervous system as an immune-privileged site, i.e., as devoid of inflammatory and host-vs.-graft immunoreactions. This view has been refined, since we now know that hematopoietic cells infiltrate the CNS under certain circumstances and that CNS-resident cells are capable of launching an innate immune(More)
Carbamylerythropoietin (CEPO) does not bind to the classical erythropoietin (EPO) receptor. Nevertheless, similarly to EPO, CEPO promotes neuroprotection on the histologic level in short-term stroke models. In the present study, we investigated whether CEPO and other nonerythropoietic EPO analogs could enhance functional recovery and promote long-term(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Several pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the demise of these cells, including dopamine-dependent oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and proteasomal impairment. In recent years,(More)
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