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The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from(More)
Cloning strategies were used to identify a gene termed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta) related to GDNFR-alpha. In situ hybridization was then used to map cellular expression of the GDNF-related trophic factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were(More)
Marrow stromal cells (MSC) can be expanded rapidly in vitro and differentiated into multiple mesodermal cell types. In addition, differentiation into neuron-like cells expressing markers typical for mature neurons has been reported. To analyze whether such cells, exposed to differentiation media, could develop electrophysiological properties characteristic(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) constitute a specialized population of glia that accompany primary olfactory axons and have been reported to facilitate axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. In the present report we describe OEC neurotrophic factor expression and neurotrophic properties of OECs in vitro. Investigation of the rat olfactory(More)
Spinal cord injury induces a complex cascade of degenerative and remodeling events evolving over time. The possible roles of changed intercellular communication via gap junctions after spinal cord injury (SCI) have remained relatively unexplored. We investigated the temporospatial expression patterns of gap junctional genes and proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43),(More)
Nogo is a myelin-associated protein known to inhibit growth of neurites. In order to understand possible physiological roles of Nogo, we performed in situ hybridization using rat and human probes complementary to a Nogo-A-specific sequence and a sequence shared by all known Nogo transcripts recognizing nogo-A, -B, and -C. We studied the cellular(More)
Interactions between ingrowing nerve fibers and their target tissues form the basis for functional connectivity with the central nervous system. Studies of the developing dental pulp innervation by nerve fibers from the trigeminal ganglion is an excellent example of nerve-target tissue interactions and will allow specific questions regarding development of(More)
Spinal cord injury leads to acute local ischemia, which may contribute to secondary degeneration. Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis through a cascade of events, involving angiogenesis stimulatory substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To test the importance of angiogenesis for functional outcome and wound healing in spinal cord injury(More)
Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the injured spinal cord has been shown to stimulate neuronal survival and regeneration. This indicates that a lack of sufficient trophic support is one factor contributing to the absence of spontaneous regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord. Regulation of the expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors after(More)
Nogo (reticulon-4) is a myelin-associated protein that is expressed in three different splice variants, Nogo-A, Nogo-B, and Nogo-C. Nogo-A inhibits neurite regeneration in the central nervous system. Messenger RNA encoding Nogo is expressed in oligodendrocytes and central and peripheral neurons, but not in astrocytes or Schwann cells. Nogo is a(More)