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The recently cloned, distant member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), has potent trophic actions on fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons. GDNF also has protective and restorative activity on adult mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and potently protects motoneurons from(More)
Cloning strategies were used to identify a gene termed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta) related to GDNFR-alpha. In situ hybridization was then used to map cellular expression of the GDNF-related trophic factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) constitute a specialized population of glia that accompany primary olfactory axons and have been reported to facilitate axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in vivo. In the present report we describe OEC neurotrophic factor expression and neurotrophic properties of OECs in vitro. Investigation of the rat olfactory(More)
Spinal cord injury induces a complex cascade of degenerative and remodeling events evolving over time. The possible roles of changed intercellular communication via gap junctions after spinal cord injury (SCI) have remained relatively unexplored. We investigated the temporospatial expression patterns of gap junctional genes and proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43),(More)
Nogo is a myelin-associated protein known to inhibit growth of neurites. In order to understand possible physiological roles of Nogo, we performed in situ hybridization using rat and human probes complementary to a Nogo-A-specific sequence and a sequence shared by all known Nogo transcripts recognizing nogo-A, -B, and -C. We studied the cellular(More)
Spinal cord injury leads to acute local ischemia, which may contribute to secondary degeneration. Hypoxia stimulates angiogenesis through a cascade of events, involving angiogenesis stimulatory substances, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To test the importance of angiogenesis for functional outcome and wound healing in spinal cord injury(More)
Delivery of neurotrophic factors to the injured spinal cord has been shown to stimulate neuronal survival and regeneration. This indicates that a lack of sufficient trophic support is one factor contributing to the absence of spontaneous regeneration in the mammalian spinal cord. Regulation of the expression of neurotrophic factors and receptors after(More)
The three axon growth inhibitory proteins, myelin associated glycoprotein, oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein and Nogo-A, can all bind to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). This receptor is expressed by neurons with high amounts in regions of high plasticity where Nogo expression is also high. We hypothesized that simultaneous presence of high levels of Nogo and(More)
Interactions between ingrowing nerve fibers and their target tissues form the basis for functional connectivity with the central nervous system. Studies of the developing dental pulp innervation by nerve fibers from the trigeminal ganglion is an excellent example of nerve-target tissue interactions and will allow specific questions regarding development of(More)
We report here the identification of a gene, termed GFRalpha-3 (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha-3), related to GFRalpha-1 and GFRalpha-2 (also known as GDNFR-alpha and GDNFR-beta), and describe distribution of GDNFalpha-3 in the nervous system and other parts of the mouse body during development and in the adult. GFRalpha-3(More)