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OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to analyze the inflammatory components in contused human brain tissue to compare the findings with previous experimental data regarding the pathogenesis of brain contusions. METHODS Contused brain tissue biopsies were obtained from 12 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for brain contusions 3 hours to 5 days after(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases has gained increased attention. Although bipolar disorder appears to be associated with altered serum cytokine levels, a putative immunological contribution to its pathophysiology remains to be established. Hitherto, no direct analyses of cerebrospinal fluid(More)
Regulatory T cells, Tregs, are a subset of lymphocytes that have immunosuppressive attributes. They are elevated in blood of glioblastoma patients and within this tumor's tissue itself. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, IDO, converts tryptophan to kynurenine. IDO activity enhances Treg formation by pathways that are unknown. Experimentally, inhibition of IDO(More)
aspects of the brain's inflammatory response, including the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulation of microglial activation. 1–4 The endo-cannabinoid system is composed of two G-protein-coupled receptors designated as CB1 and CB2 expressed throughout the body and notably by neural stem cells. 5 We have previously shown that stimulation of the(More)
BACKGROUND Perinatal factors are associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Improvements in obstetric and maternal healthcare and positive socioeconomic development in Sweden from the 1950s onwards could be expected to affect incidence estimates. However, commonly incidence rates are calculated during a specific year, i.e.(More)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 encephalitis (HSE) is a viral infectious disease with commonly occurring neurodegeneration and neurological/cognitive long-term sequelae. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive tryptophan metabolite, which is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during viral infection as a result of immune activation. The aim of the(More)
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