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Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Positron emission tomography was used to study regional cerebral blood flow (H2(15)O method) in groups of young and older adults during implicit and explicit retrieval, following a procedure devised by Squire et al. (1992). At study, subjects were exposed to four lists of words. Following list presentation, subjects were presented with three-letter word(More)
The effects of lung volume and involuntary breathing movements on the human diving response were studied in 17 breath-hold divers. Each subject performed maximal effort apnoeas and simulated dives by apnoea and cold water face immersion, at lung volumes of 60%, 85%, and 100% of prone vital capacity (VC). Time of apnoea, blood pressure, heart rate, skin(More)
This study addressed the effects of apnea in air and apnea with face immersion in cold water (10 degrees C) on the diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during dynamic exercise. Eight trained breath-hold divers performed steady-state exercise on a cycle ergometer at 100 W. During exercise, each subject performed 30-s apneas in air and 30-s apneas(More)
To reveal areas in the central nervous system of importance for electrodermal control, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was correlated to nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSF) during aversive and nonaversive conditions. Participants viewed a TV screen displaying white noise or snake videotapes presented both with and without electric shocks(More)
The effect of the diving response on alveolar gas exchange was investigated in 15 subjects. During steady-state exercise (80 W) on a cycle ergometer, the subjects performed 40-s apneas in air and 40-s apneas with face immersion in cold (10 degrees C) water. Heart rate decreased and blood pressure increased during apneas, and the responses were augmented by(More)
Using positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]butanol we studied regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to a visual snake stimulus before and after classical conditioning with an unconditioned electric shock delivered to the right hand. Measures of heart rate, electrodermal activity, state anxiety and subjective distress confirmed classical conditioning of(More)
This study addressed the interaction between short-term adaptation to apneas with face immersion and erythrocyte release from the spleen. Twenty healthy volunteers, including ten splenectomized subjects, participated. After prone rest, they performed five maximal-duration apneas with face immersion in 10 degrees C water, with 2-min intervals.(More)
We studied the effect of the human diving response, defined as bradycardia and reduced peripheral blood flow, on arterial hemoglobin desaturation. We induced a diving response of different magnitudes by using apnea in air and apnea with face immersion. Each of 21 subjects performed five apneas in air and five apneas with face immersion in 10 degrees C(More)