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Recent studies have shown that large fuel loads in small birds impair flying ability. This is the first study to show how migratory fuel load affects flying ability, such as velocity and height gained at take-off in a predator escape situation, in a medium-distance migrant, and whether they adjust their take-off according to predator attack angle.(More)
Cryptic prey coloration typically bears a resemblance to the habitat the prey uses. It has been suggested that coloration which visually matches a random sample of the background maximizes background matching. We studied this previously untested hypothesis, as well as another, little studied principle of concealment, disruptive coloration, and whether it(More)
Bird mortality is heavily affected by birds of prey. Under attack, take-off is crucial for survival and even minor mistakes in initial escape response can have devastating consequences. Birds may respond differently depending on the character of the predator's attack and these split-second decisions were studied using a model merlin (Falco columbarius) that(More)
Radiation chemical experiments demonstrate that the reaction of tyrosyl radical (TyrO(.)) with (.)NO(2) yields 45 +/- 3% 3-nitrotyrosine and that a major product of the reaction of TyrO(.) with (.)NO is 3,3'-dityrosine. Radiolysis was used to generate (.)NO and O-(2) in the presence of tyrosine and bicarbonate at pH 7.5 +/- 0.1. The nitration yield was(More)
The equilibrium constant, K3, of aqueous homolysis of peroxynitrous acid into hydroxyl and nitrogen dioxide free radicals was estimated to be 5 x 10(-10) M. This value was derived from a thermodynamic cycle by use of the experimentally known delta fH degree(ONOO-,aq) = -10.8 kcal/mol and the enthalpy of ionic dissociation of ONOOH(aq), delta H degree 1 = 0(More)
Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major(More)
The reaction of ONOO(-) with CO(2) at alkaline pH was recently reported to form a transient absorption with a maximum at 640 nm and a half-life of ca. 4 ms at 10 degrees C [Meli et al. (1999) Helv. Chim. Acta 82, 722-725]. This transient absorption was hardly affected by the presence of *NO, and therefore was attributed to the adduct ONOOC(O)O(-). This(More)
Predation and predation risk have recently been shown to have profound effects on bird migration, but we still know relatively little about how birds respond to predation risk en route and how this is translated into fundamental aspects of optimal migration. Here, we make the case that to understand the fitness consequences of foraging and anti-predation(More)
In theory, survival rates and consequent population status might be predictable from instantaneous behavioural measures of how animals prioritize foraging vs. avoiding predation. We show, for the 30 most common small bird species ringed in the UK, that one quarter respond to higher predation risk as if it is mass-dependent and lose mass. Half respond to(More)