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The common sequence variants that have recently been associated with cancer risk are particular to a single cancer type or at most two. Following up on our genome-wide scan of basal cell carcinoma, we found that rs401681[C] on chromosome 5p15.33 satisfied our threshold for genome-wide significance (OR = 1.25, P = 3.7 x 10(-12)). We tested rs401681 for(More)
Calpain is a ubiquitous protease with potential involvement in apoptosis. We report that in human melanoma cells, cisplatin-induced calpain activation occurs early in apoptosis. Calpain activation and subsequent apoptosis were inhibited by calpeptin and PD150606, two calpain inhibitors with different modes of action. Furthermore, cisplatin induced cleavage(More)
BACKGROUND Combined BRAF and MEK inhibition, as compared with BRAF inhibition alone, delays the emergence of resistance and reduces toxic effects in patients who have melanoma with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. METHODS In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 423 previously untreated patients who had unresectable stage IIIC or stage IV melanoma with a(More)
BACKGROUND Germline mutations in the CDKN2A gene, which encodes two proteins (p16INK4A and p14ARF), are the most common cause of inherited susceptibility to melanoma. We examined the penetrance of such mutations using data from eight groups from Europe, Australia and the United States that are part of The Melanoma Genetics Consortium. METHODS We analyzed(More)
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major regulatory pathway of protein degradation and plays an important role in cellular division. Fbxw7 (or hCdc4), a member of the F-box family of proteins, which are substrate recognition components of the multisubunit ubiquitin ligase SCF (Skp1-Cdc53/Cullin-F-box-protein), has been shown to mediate the(More)
BACKGROUND Previously, a study of ours showed that the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib improves progression-free survival compared with dabrafenib and placebo in patients with BRAF Val600Lys/Glu mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. The study was continued to assess the secondary endpoint of overall survival, which we report in this Article. (More)
We have previously demonstrated the use of pyrosequencing to investigate NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog] mutations in melanoma biopsies. Here, we expanded the analysis to include BRAF (V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1), another member of the Ras-Raf-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway, and(More)
Fair color increases risk of cutaneous melanoma (CM) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified variants affecting hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans. Here, we assess the effect of these variants on risk of CM and BCC in European populations comprising 2,121 individuals with CM, 2,163 individuals with(More)
A majority of cutaneous melanomas show activating mutations in the NRAS or BRAF proto-oncogenes, components of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk signal transduction pathway. Consistent data demonstrate the early appearance, in a mutually exclusive manner, of these mutations. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature on NRAS and BRAF activating mutations in(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with a variety of reported effects including inhibition of monocyte major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-dependent antigen presentation, type 1 helper T cell cytokine production, and inhibition of T cell proliferation. Herein we report the effect of IL-10 pretreatment on antigen presentation to tumor- and(More)