Johan Håkansson

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ii iii CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v ABSTRACT vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS vii 1. CONTEXT 1 2. INTERNAL MIGRATION AND POPULATION CHANGE REVIEWED 3 2.1 Migration, urbanisation and suburbanisation waves 3 2.1.1 Concentration during the post war period to the 1970s 3 2.1.2 Concentrated dispersion: the 1970s 6 2.1.3 Concentration and dispersion: the(More)
We develop a method for empirically measuring the difference in carbon footprint between traditional and online retailing (" e-tailing ") from entry point to a geographical area to consumer residence. The method only requires data on the locations of brick-and-mortar stores, online delivery points, and residences of the region's population, and on the goods(More)
A customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to it and the attractiveness of it. However regarding the location of the facility, the presumption is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. This paradox was recently solved by the introduction of the gravity p-median model. The model is yet to be implemented(More)
Working papers in transport, tourism, information technology and microdata analysis To what extent are CO 2 emissions from intra-urban shopping trips by cars affected by drivers' travel behaviour and store location? Abstract: Transportation is seen as one of the major sources of CO 2 pollutants nowadays. The impact of increased transport in retailing should(More)
Testing the gravity p-median model empirically. Access to the published version may require subscription. a b s t r a c t Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer(More)