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A survey on prevalence and treatment of mental disorders and epilepsy in Zanzibar was conducted in 1988 among 10,776 randomly selected people. Prevalence rates of 4.9/1000 for epilepsy and 3.2/1000 for psychotic disorders were found. Traditional treatment was common. This article discusses treatment practices and the distribution of target conditions(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders with evidence of genetic predisposition. Intestinal disturbances are reported in ASD patients and compositional changes in gut microbiota are described. However, the role of microbiota in brain disorders is poorly documented. Here, we used a murine model of ASD(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a rare but known cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The role of inflammatory cytokines in the progression of ARDS in TB patients is unknown. In this study we investigated the possible link between the levels of inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in patients with TB or ARDS alone or in patients with(More)
Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1-infected adults. In a(More)
To assess the possibility that increases in UV-B exposure on the earth's surface could lead to impaired resistance to several infectious diseases, we studied the effect of UV-B exposure on resistance against Trichinella spiralis. Wistar rats, orally infected with T. spiralis larvae, were exposed to suberythemal doses of UV-B radiation daily for 5 days at(More)
Rising neurodegenerative and depressive disease prevalence combined with the lack of effective pharmaceutical treatments and dangerous side effects, has created an urgent need for the development of effective therapies. Considering that these disorders are multifactorial in origin, treatments designed to interfere at different mechanistic levels may be more(More)
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most common causes of sporadic encephalitis. The initial clinical course of HSV encephalitis (HSE) is highly variable, and the infection may be rapidly fatal. For effective treatment with antiviral medication, an early diagnosis of HSE is crucial. Subtle brain infections with HSV may be causally related to(More)
Extracellular vesicles (EV) in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored) breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the(More)
OBJECTIVE Proline-glycine-proline (PGP) has been shown to have chemotactic effects on neutrophils via CXCR2 in several lung diseases. PGP is derived from collagen by the combined action of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and/or MMP9 and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). We investigated the role of PGP in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). DESIGN In intestinal(More)