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A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from(More)
A new in vivo animal model that produces diffuse brain injuries in sagittal plane rearward rotational acceleration has been developed. In this model, the skull of an anesthetized adult rat is tightly secured to a rotating bar. During trauma, the bar is impacted by a striker that causes the bar and the animal head to rotate rearward; the acceleration phase(More)
A review of a few Swedish research projects on soft tissue neck injuries in car collisions is presented together with some new results. Efforts to determine neck injury mechanisms was based on a hypothesis stating that injuries to the nerve root region in the cervical spine are a result of transient pressure gradients in the spinal canal during rapid neck(More)
Mechanical loading of the cervical spine during car accidents often lead to a number of neck injury symptoms with the common term Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). Several of these symptoms could possibly be explained by injuries to the cervical spinal nerve root region. It was hypothesised that the changes in the inner volume of the cervical spinal(More)
We examined the effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) in the secondary inflammatory response following a novel method of focal penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has limited but well-documented neuroprotective effects after experimental central nervous system ischemia and TBI, but its bioavailability is very low. We(More)
A penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) occurs when an object impacts the head with sufficient force to penetrate the skin, skull, and meninges, and inflict injury directly to the brain parenchyma. This type of injury has been notoriously difficult to model in small laboratory animals such as rats or mice. To this end, we have established a novel(More)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the most common neuronal insults and can lead to long-term disabilities. mTBI occurs when the head is exposed to a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement triggering axonal injuries. Our limited understanding of the underlying pathological changes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of mTBI. In this study(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to model occupant kinematics in an autonomous braking event by using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM) with active muscles as a step toward HBMs that can be used for injury prediction in integrated precrash and crash simulations. METHODS Trunk and neck musculature was added to an existing FE HBM. Active muscle(More)
Vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, are often involved in crashes with passenger cars. One way to prevent these crashes is to deploy active safety systems that support the car drivers and/or VRUs. However, to develop such systems, a thorough understanding of crash causation mechanisms is required. The aim of this study is to(More)
The complement system plays an important role in the inflammatory response activated by many central nervous system disorders. However, its significance in traumatic diffuse traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is not fully known. Here we analyze the complement activity in two rat models of traumatic brain injury (TBI); a focal penetration injury (pen-TBI) and a(More)